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# What factors affect the rate of decay of a limestone castle?

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Introduction

PLANNING Question What factors affect the rate of decay of a limestone castle? A local town has a castle. The castle is built from Limestone (Calcium Carbonate). The castle has started to crumble. Some people have blamed the new damage on acid rain and have stated that the damage has increased as pollution has increased. Others blame Global warming and claim that the level of acid in the rain has stayed the same. Choose ONE factor to investigate to find the reason for the decay of the castle. The reaction is: Calcium Carbonate + Nitric Acid --------> Calcium Nitrate + Water + Carbon Dioxide Intro * I decided to investigate the affect that acid rain would have on the limestone, which the castle is built of. * For this, I decided to do an experiment involving immersing limestone chips in different concentrations of acid. Hypothesis I think that the acid will dissolve the marble chips in the experiment that I am about to perform. As I change the independant variable, the rate at which the marble chips dissolve and how much they do in the given time will vary. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, I will be performing the task 5 times to make one single "experiment", which there are three of in this investigation. The Experiments I will try and do my best to ensure as much accuracy as I possibly can throughout the components of experiments 1, 2 and 3. Repeating the experiments 3 times and comparing results ensures an accurate average, as does measuring and ensuring some variables exempt one are of the same value throughout. However, as much as I will try to do this, it is not possible for me to ensure complete and utter accuracy, and the measurements of fluids and marble chips from component to component are bound to vary mildly, which is out of my control as there is a limit to how accurate it is possible to be. OBTAINING EVIDENCE Results Tables I have drawn up some results tables, one for each of the experiments I have done, of which there are three of altogether. Within each of the three experiments are five components. EXPERIMENT 1 Component Water(cm3) Acid(cm3) Height of jar(cm) Water decreased in jar - level of CO2(cm) C.1 40 0 23 1.5 C.2 30 10 " " 2.8 C.3 20 20 " " 4.0 C.4 10 30 " " 5.0 C.5 0 40 " " 6.0 Difference(cm) ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, the level of water was lower to start with, which may have contributed to the amount of cm's that the water had dropped due to CO2 gas. They may also be linked to slipped standards of accuracy in my experiments, but I was almost fully sure that I performed them with my best precision. I think that to improve the standards of the experiment and to increase the accuracy, each procedure of the experiment should be followed extremely carefully. The variables that should not be changed should be kept entirely equal, such as the timing of the reaction, the weight of the marble chips, the water in the gas jar and the amount of solution. The glass slide used to keep the water in the gas jar when tipped upside down should be released carefully, and only when the gas jar reaches the beehive in the trough should it be released. To extend my investigation on the decay of the limestone castle, I could repeat the experiment many times over to achieve an even more accurate average. I could also investigate global warming harming the limestone castle, and compare the two types of experiments to see which one would be most detrimental to the limestone castle. ...read more.

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