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What factors affect the rate of reaction?

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Introduction

What factors affect the rate of reaction? By Alex Willmott I am trying to find out what factors affect the rate of reaction. Here are the four things that affect the rate of reactions under normal circumstances: * Concentration * Catalysts * Temperature * Surface Area In this experiment we will be looking at how concentration affects the rate of reaction. Here is the word equation for our experiment: Magnesium + Sulphuric Acid Hydrogen + Magnesium Sulphate Mg(s) + H SO H (g) + MgSO Prediction In my experiment I expect that when I increase the amount of acid the reaction will occur faster. Increasing the amount of acid is increasing the concentration, which I think will speed up the reaction. If I dilute the sulphuric acid by adding water then the rate of reaction will slow down because of decreased concentration. This will all happen because of something called 'The Collision Theory'. The particles in a liquid move continuously, so this causes collisions. So if the collisions have enough energy a reaction will take place, but if there is not enough energy no reaction occurs. This is where the factors I mentioned come into play; for example if there is more particles a reaction is less likely to occur, this is when surface area is involved. ...read more.

Middle

Measuring out the required amount of water we pour that into the conical flask followed by the required amount of acid. Then we put on the lid of the conical flask, and place the delivery tube so it runs from the conical flask into the large measuring cylinder and start the stopwatch. We will record the amount of hydrogen collected in the large measuring cylinder every 15 seconds, we will do this for 75 seconds; we will then record all of the results in a table. We will conduct this experiment twice, record the results and then display them in a graph. Once we have done that we will average our results and turn plot them onto a graph also. Here is the amount of Acid to the amount of Water: CM CM Acid Water 10 0 20 30 30 20 40 10 50 0 Here is a scientific diagram of my experiment: My Results Volume of hydrogen produced (cm ) Time(s) 5cm Acid 10cm Acid 15 cm Acid 20cm Acid 25cm Acid 20cm Water 15cm Water 10cm Water 5cm Water 0cm Water 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 2 4 6 10 30 0 4 6 10 25 45 0 5 9 12 33 60 2 8 13 14 40 75 4 10 14 18 47 My Second Set of Results Volume of Hydrogen Produced (cm ) ...read more.

Conclusion

Another problem was when I called out for the volume of gas to be recorded it took a while for my partner to read the number on the cylinder and read it out so I could write it down. This means there is some inaccuracy in our results. Sometimes there is already air in the measuring cylinder when we begin the test this means that we would count that air as well as the hydrogen produced. If we had more time to improve our experiment so we could improve our accuracy, we would put in the acid and water in the conical flask and start the stopwatch all at the same time. I would also take time to find an accurate measuring cylinder with clear markings so the volume of gas could be measured quickly. To prevent air leaking into the measuring cylinder before the test has already begun, I will have to keep trying to put I the cylinder without air entering until I get it perfect. I don't really have any anomalous results, except on the first test for 20cm of acid and 5cm of water I have one slightly unusual result. At 60 seconds the volume of hydrogen is only 14 which is not really continuing on with the pattern on that set of results. ...read more.

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