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What Factors Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate?

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Introduction

What Factors Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate? Background knowledge Many substances react when they come into contact with each other. To collide they require kinetic energy. They require an excess of it to react; this is why reactions are more rapid at greater temperatures. As the particles have more energy they are moving faster and are therefore more likely to come into contact with each other. Reactions between acids and alkalis as is the case here, will produce a neutralisation reaction where the substance formed will be more neutral (closer to a pH 7) than the original reactants. This is usually an exothermic reaction in which heat is given off due to the fact that when the bonds of a new substance is formed there is excess energy. The are many factors that can affect the rate of a reaction. These include temperature which is explained in the first paragraph, surface area of a solid in a reaction, the concentration of each substance, pressure, and quantities of each substance. If the solid, in this case calcium carbonate, has a large surface area more acid molecules can come into contact with it at the same time, allowing more to react simultaneously. If the same volume of the solid is divided into smaller pieces it will have a greater relative surface area The solid to the left is made up of 16 molecules, of which only 12 (red particles) are exposed to any substance it may contact. ...read more.

Middle

Safety When using any type of acid it is important to wear safety goggles and exercise care. Equipment set-up The equipment is to be set up as shown below (Fig A ): Apparatus List Conical flask with Delivery tube and Bung Dish Measuring Cylinder Funnel Safety Goggles Stop Clock Control To keep the experiment fair, I will only vary the concentration of the acid, nothing else. I will use the same mass of calcium carbonate with the same surface area each time. I will use the same amount of acid (100ml). I will keep the temperature and outside pressure the same so that the reaction will not have varying amounts of thermal energy, and so that the gas will be at the same compression when its volume is measured. The fist gas to be expelled by the reaction, is not carbon-dioxide from the reaction, it is air, but it will be still measured. Carbon-dioxide is needed to displace it. Prediction I predict that each time I halve the concentration of the acid the rate of reaction will halve and the time taken to collect a specific volume of gas will increase. Due to the fact that when the concentration of acid is halved, only half the amount of acid molecules will be able to contact the surface of the calcium carbonate. This is due to the fact that they will be obstructed by the water molecules in place of other acid molecules. It would produce a graph similar to this: Results These are the results collected from the experiment: Due to inaccuracies in the timing of this experiment (as explained in the Accuracy section) ...read more.

Conclusion

However inaccuracies could be incurred because the pressure would have to increase before the syringe could be moved. Accuracy I think that my results are of a reasonable degree of accuracy in particular as regards the volume of gas. None of the gas escaped during any of the experiments except into the measuring cylinder. However, I though that slight inaccuracies could have been incurred due to the fact that before a bubble of gas is expelled from the conical flask there has to be an increase in pressure. The gas which increases the pressure is not expelled into the measuring cylinder and therefore is not accounted for. However at a constant temperature and altitude the volume of gas required to increase the pressure wouldn't vary therefore it should cause no inaccuracies. However the inaccuracies in the timing were more related to human error. It is an impossibility to record the time taken to collect the gas, perfectly accurately, using only a stop clock. Therefore all timings were rounded to the nearest tenth of a second and three results were collected for each strength of acid and an average calculated. There were two results in my results table which seemed inaccurate. They are circled in red and were omitted from calculations of the average. The only ways that I think the experiment could have been made more accurate would have been by using timing equipment which stopped automatically when the measuring cylinder was filed to 25ml. Also the chips of calcium carbonate could have had varying surface areas. The only way around this would be to have the chips cut to size on precision instruments. ...read more.

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