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What factors affect the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction Aim: What factors affect the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. Prediction: I predict the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid will increase as the temperature increases. I also predict that the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid will increase when the surface area of the Magnesium is increased and the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid is increased. Hypothesis: The Collision Theory describes the way temperature, concentration and the surface area of the solid reactant affects the rate of reaction, by affecting the collision between particles. Particles react when they collide with enough velocity and sufficient energy. I predict the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid will increase when the temperature increase. This is because changes in temperature change the kinetic energy of the particles and hence the numbers of successful collisions with enough energy to break existing bonds and make product parties. The minimum energy needed for a successful collision is called the activation energy. For a reaction to take place reagent molecules must collide with each other. When they do so, they must seize enough energy to cause or initiate a reaction. The level of energy needed to start a reaction is called its energy barrier. ...read more.

Middle

General formula: Magnesium (s) + Hydrochloric acid (l) Magnesium Chloride (l) + Hydrogen (g) Mg (s) + 2HCl (l) MgCl2 (l) + H2 (g) Method 1 (Temperature): * Add 25 ml of (2 molar) Hydrochloric acid in to a conical flask * Heat it by putting it in a water bath * When the acid reaches 60�C, add a strip of (5 centimetre long) Magnesium to the acid * Use a stop watch to time how long it will take before the Magnesium strip dissolves I used the same method for 40�C and 27�C (room temperature). Method 2 (Concentration of acid): * Add 25ml of (0.5 molar) Hydrochloric acid in to a conical flask * Add a strip of (5 centimetre long) Magnesium to the acid * Use a stop watch to time how long it will it take before the magnesium strip dissolves I used the same method of 1 molar and 2 molar of Hydrochloric acid. Method 3 (Surface area): * Add 25ml of (1 molar) Hydrochloric acid in to a conical flask * Add a strip of (1.25 centimetre long * 4) of Magnesium to the acid * Using a stop watch time how long it will take before the Magnesium strip dissolves I used the same method for 2.50 centimetre long * 2 and 5 centimetre long magnesium strips. ...read more.

Conclusion

But in my hypothesis I said that the when the temperature is doubled it would half the time then the temperature before but it did not happen. This shows that when the temperature is doubled, the time don't take half the time then the temperature before. My 'Concentration of acid' result shows us that when concentration of the acid is increased the rate of reaction increases rapidly. It took an average time of 15:16 sec for the Magnesium to dissolve when the concentration was 0.5 molar, whereas it only took 3:14 sec when using 1 molar and 0:25 sec when using 2 molar. Again in my Hypothesis I said that it would take half the time when you double the concentration then the concentration before but it took much more time than I thought it would. My results don't show a pattern but it shows that there is a dramatic change when the concentration of the acid is increased. My 'Surface area' result shows that there is a slight difference when there is an increase with the surface area. Although I think that this is inconclusive because my 2.50 centimetre long * 2 strip takes less time than the 1.25 centimetre long * 4 strip. ...read more.

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