• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What factors brought about change in Surgery?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What factors brought about change in Surgery? Many factors brought about changes in Surgery. Surgery in early1800 was dangerous and painful. There was no way of completely relieving the pain suffered by the patient, nor was it possible to replace blood transfusions although blood vessels could be tied up by ligatures to stop the bleeding. Operations went dreadfully wrong and many patients died from blood poisoning. The change or breakthrough in Surgery was brought about, when First World War broke out in 1914. The First World War led to massive casualties and loss of human lives. Though Surgeons had old primitive methods of surgery but the First World War led surgeons to find modern methods of saving lives. The 19th century saw the birth of new ideas in surgery. As 19th century saw the dawn of Industrial Revolution in Britain and saw a huge rise in population. Lack of exercise, pollution related disease like lung diseases and deficiency diseases were common in people. Anaesthetics played an important part in childbirth and even Queen Victoria requested for chloroform during the birth of Prince Leopold. The Government of England played an important in 19th century, as many people of England were encouraged to copy the example of their sovereign. The Crimean War which broke out in March 1854, led to heavy casualties. ...read more.

Middle

Nitrous oxide (laughing Gas) was discovered in 1799 by Humphrey Davy but ignored by surgeons of the time. Horace Wells suggested Nitrous oxide for dentistry. When by chance, he did a experiment in 1845 on a patient who was unaffected by gas. In 1847 James Simpleton undertook self experiment and prove that chloroform may cause liver damage. General Anaesthetics (complete unconsciousness) was very risky, so local Anaesthetic (numbing of the part treated) is better for many operations. Local Anaesthetics based on cocaine, started to be used from 1814. Some people were suspicious of doctors using Anaesthetics and even objected on basis on religious grounds. Others were afraid of side effects and the dangers of overdose. Surgeons were keen to perform complicated operations because an unconscious patient was more cooperative and surgeon could take longer over his work. As the dangers of bleeding and infection had not been overcome, the attempts at more complicated surgery actually led to increased death between 1848 to 1870. This was all improved by 20th century when Modern Anaesthetics use complicated mixtures to produce muscle relaxation or paralysis. Modern Surgery also follows antiseptic methods to kill germs that get near the surgical wounds. Aseptic method aim to stop any germs getting near the surgical wound. ...read more.

Conclusion

Between 1896 and 1898 Antoine Henri Becquerel and Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the first radioactive isotopes. Radioactive isotopes are used in diagnosis as tracers, in radiotherapy and in immunosuppression. Modern Surgery has lead to new methods of Transplants, replacing worn out parts of human body, e.g. joint replacement and prosthetic (artificial limbs). Transplant surgery using donor organs ha usually been the only option. The first organ to be transplanted was the kidney (in 1951), followed by the cornea of the eye. Livers, lungs pancreases and bone marrow are also transplanted. Heart transplants are major surgery, as patients have also additional problems with cardiovascular system and other organs. Surgeon Christian Barnard first carried the Heart Transplant on a patient in December 1967 but the patient survived only 18 days. The major problem in Heart Transplant is rejection, which is when the host's body immune system attacks the implant. Twentieth century warfare tends to produce a higher proportion of burn injuries, which also have led to Plastic surgery. Harold Gillies worked as plastic surgeon in First World War and his work continued in the Second World War by his assistant Archibald McIndoe. Another achievement of modern surgery is Keyhole Surgery, where if there is no need for major operation, treatment is done by only through making a hole on that particular part of the body. Modern surgery has gradually improved to its present condition and is improving day by day. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Free essay

    biology transplants

    There were ethical problems in this new procedure that bothered some doctors: To cure one patient, they had to harm another healthy person (by taking out a kidney). But this was the least of their stumbling blocks. How could they trick the body into not rejecting the new, healthy kidney that it needed?

  2. Should the cloning of humans be allowed?

    be likely that human clones may end up suffering from these health problems. As well as this, human clones could end up having a shorter life span than average due to shortened telomeres. Do those supporting human cloning think it would be fair to subject human clones to such abnormalities,

  1. Becoming a Surgeon

    Not having these skills will lead to mistakes and you could be sued. This will lead to losing your job or even worse not being able to work again. In the operating room treating a patient you should be able to concentrate on what you are doing and block any interruptions from your head.

  2. Discuss the division of resources with regards to the prevention and treatment of CHDs:

    A vein from the leg is grafted on to the heart to bypass the blocked coronary artery. As the tissue comes from the same patient there is no need for immuno-suppressive drugs as the tissue is already genetically matched. An angioplasty may also be carried out which is the mechanical

  1. Are computer games good or bad for you?

    and ?'When people play action games, they're changing the brain's pathway responsible for visual processing. These games push the human visual system to the limits and the brain adapts to it?(1) So, in conclusion,because of the nature of shoot em up games they require a high level of consertration,awerness and

  2. All about Tuberculosis!

    may be feasible. If proven effective in clinical trials, chemoprophylaxis might also play an important role in preventing clinical TB in persons with dual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis infections. Treatment The most effective means of reducing transmission of tuberculosis infection, and thus the number of TB cases, is to treat and cure patients with smear-positive TB.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work