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What Factors Can Affect a Chemical Reaction?

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Introduction

What Factors Can Affect a Chemical Reaction? Reactions can occur at all sorts of different rates. One of the slowest reactions is the rusting of iron. A moderate speed reaction is a metal e.g. Magnesium, reacting with acid to produce a gentle stream of bubbles. A really fast reaction is an explosion, where it is all over in a fraction of a second. The speed of a reaction can be observed either by how quickly the reactants are used up or how quickly the products are forming. There are three different ways that the speed of a reaction can be measured: - * Precipitation * Change in Mass * The Volume of Gas given off The rate of a reaction depends on the four following things: - * Temperature * Concentration * Catalysts * Size of Particles Reactions are explained by The Collision Theory. This states that the rate of a reaction simply depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. The basic idea of the theory is that the particles have to collide and collide hard enough to react. Chemical A Chemical B I have decided to investigate how the temperature during a reaction can affect the rate at which that reaction occurs. ...read more.

Middle

* Put the results in a table and plot a graph * Repeat the experiment at least 5 times with the temperature of the acid increasing, but always the some amount of Marble Chips. * The volume of the acid must always be kept the same too. Only the temperature should increase. * Redo all experiments (stage 9) twice because I want to be accurate and sure of my results. Whilst doing this experiment I have to remember that the Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) is highly corrosive and therefore I must avoid contact and wear goggles at all times. I've taken precautions by wearing goggles, having my hair tied up and rolling up my sleeves. To keep this experiment a fair one, I had to keep all variables the same apart from the temperature. The other variables were:- * Surface area of the marble chips * Concentration of the acid * Amounts of material used. I made sure I used the same amount of marble chips and hydrochloric acid each time. As well as making sure the concentration of hydrochloric acid was the same. Finally I made sure to keep the surface area of the marble chips the same, by only using 12mm ones. ...read more.

Conclusion

My experiment went well and there were no anomalous results once I had sorted out the minor error I made. I can therefore presume that my results are likely to be accurate as I took averages of my results which are all within 5% of each other and that any conclusions drawn from this experiment are genuine. Although I felt I was quite accurate I have some ideas which may gain even more accurate readings. Firstly, the surfaces of the marble chips were not perfect. It could have been made better by using powdered marble chips because the surface areas would have been a lot closer together. However, if I was to do this the concentration of the hydrochloric acid would have to be weaker or the reaction would take place far to quickly to be recorded. Secondly, human error may have played a part. To resume this I would have to take care to read things accurately and redo all experiments as I did. There are many possible extensions to this experiment. I could try different acids to react with the marble chips or different carbonates to react with the hydrochloric acid. I could even try to react different carbonates with different acids. All of the extensions could help me to broaden my knowledge of rates of reaction. ...read more.

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