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What factorsaffect the rate of reaction between limestone and acid?

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Introduction

What factors affect the rate of reaction between limestone and acid? Introduction. For my year 10 chemistry coursework I will be investigating how fast the rate of reaction is when hydrochloric acid is added to calcium carbonate (lime stone) when varying the strength of the acid. When the acid id added to the lime stone a chemical reaction shall occur, thus producing carbon dioxide as the product. I will measure this through the experiment frequently in each test. I shall be doing this as I am trying to see which acid is the most and least affective. Carbon dioxide, the gas produced, will be measured in millimetres. The limestone that I shall be using in my experiment is 1.0g hard rocks of limestone Rates of reaction For a chemical reaction to occur, the particles of the reactants come together with a certain amount of energy. This is called the activation energy. The speed of reaction depends on several things: * Concentration- As the concentration gets higher there is more acid particles to collide with the marble chip. As the collisions occur more often the reaction rate is faster. As the concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. * Temperature- As the temp increases the acid particles gain more energy and move around faster. As a result collisions occur more often and the reaction rate is faster. As the temprature increases the rate of reaction increases. ...read more.

Middle

We used the following apparatus in our experiment:- * One clamp stand * One basin of water * Dilute hydrochloric acid * One measuring cylinder * Lime stone * Test tube Here is a diagram of our experiment. Once we have collected all the equipment needed to carry out the experiment, we needed to first of all put it together and set the apparatus up. We did this by first of all taking a plastic container and filling it with water, then putting it underneath the clamp stand. Once we had done this, we then took a measuring cylinder and filled it to the brim with water. We had to refrain from letting any water out of the cylinder because this could ruin the experiment. So what we did was I put my hand over the cylinder and very carefully turned it upside down, then placed it into the plastic container. Then once I had done this, I then held the cylinder in place and clamped it to the clamp stand. Now we had the main section of the apparatus set up, so what we needed to do was to choose how heavy our limestone would be, to go into our test tube. Since we were going to repeat the experiment several times, we had come to a decision to choose 1.0g of lime stone in the test tube. We carefully measured the lime stone on some electronic scales and once we were happy that we had enough lime stone that came to the weight of 1.0g we then placed it into the test tube. ...read more.

Conclusion

Time (sec) 6.3 15 10.8 30 15.1 45 19.075 60 21.7 75 24.2 90 26.6 105 28.4 120 30.2 135 31.8 150 33.2 165 34.5 180 35.3 195 36.3 210 36.9 225 37.6 240 Acid concerntration 0.2 molar, 10cm3 acid, mass of CaCo3 1.0g volume of gas (cm3) Time (sec) 3.7 15 6.2 30 8.5 45 10.9 60 12.5 75 13.9 90 15.4 105 16.5 120 17.5 135 18.3 150 19.2 165 19.8 180 20.4 195 20.9 210 21.4 225 21.6 240 Analysis of results: Conclusion The analysis of my results as plotted on the graphs show that the theory and prediction made at the beginning of the experiment are valid. The graphs are used to measure the rate of reaction and the volume of carbon dioxide given off in a given amount of time. With progressively increasing the concentration of acid the volume of carbon dioxide released increased. The plots also revealed that at first there is a gradual increase of carbon dioxide given off (linear part of the graph) which later plateaus out. This is more evident in the lower concentrations of acid than at the higher concentration, where this effect cannot be seen as the reaction speed increases and stops. The rate of reaction can be calculated: by the volume of gas divide by the time taken acid concentration 0.2 molar. The slop of y 1 Rate of reaction = increase in volume of gas time taken. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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