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What is Acid Rain? What are the effects of acid rain?

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Introduction

MOHAMMED ABDUL KALIK SHAHEEN What is ACID RAIN? Introduction Task 1 - What is Acid Rain? A number of people believe that rain is damage free weather occurrence. Nevertheless the increase in acidity of rain is both unsafe and damaging. In order to understand acidity fully, it is necessary to know a little information about the pH scale. The ph scale has a number of varieties Listed from 0-14, anything with a ph lower than 7 (i.e. 0-6) is known to be acidic, and the one with ph 7 is neutral and all the rest with that have a ph higher than seven (i.e. 8-14) is known to be alkaline. This is a basic diagram showing the ph scale A change in only one unit is equal to a tenfold increase in the strength of the acid or base. Therefore a unit change from pH 4 to pH 6 is equal to a 10 x 10 increase in acidity. Taking the above into concern, it is easy to see how the original phenomenon "rain" is becoming more and more acidic as its pH has fallen from around 6 and 7 to about 4-3 and 5-3. In 1852 an English chemist called Robert Angus smith was first known to notice the incidence of acid rain. ...read more.

Middle

Nitrogen oxides are mainly emitted into the atmosphere by vehicle exhausts. They react with water to form nitric acid in the atmosphere. NO2 (g)+H2O (l)�HNO3 (aq)+HNO2(aq) [gas phase] In the aqueous phase there are three equilibrium that have to be considered for the oxidation of nitrogen oxide: * 2NO2(g)+H2O(l) 2H++NO3- +NO2- * NO (g)+NO2(g)+H2O (l) 2H+ +2NO2- * 3NO2(g)+H2O(l) 2H+ +2NO3-+2NO(g) The limited pressures of nitrogen oxides present in the low atmosphere, and the low solubility of nitrogen oxides limit the above reactions. There is an increase in the rate of the reactions only with the use of metal catalysts like in the case of the aqueous oxidation of sulphur dioxide. This is a basic diagram showing how acid rain works Task 3 - What are the effects of acid rain? Scientists have noticed that over the years some forests seem to be growing more and more slowly for no obvious reason. After the collection of information on the chemistry and the biology of the forests it has been proved that this is due to acid rain. When acid rain falls, the acidic rainwater dissolves the nutrients and helpful materials from the soil. These minerals are then washed away before trees other plants can use them to grow. ...read more.

Conclusion

5. All these acid rain solutions are pointless unless people are notified and educated about the effects and harms of acid rain. An extensive and nationwide effort must be made to make people aware. Only after that is done will all the acid rain solutions actually make a difference Conclusion Overall, acid rain is a big problem that should not know to every one because of its major effects. This occurrence ruins anything it comes into contact with. By affecting the environment acid rain affects humans on the long run as well. What we can do, to reduce the emission of gases that cause acid rain is to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Walking and public transportation can reduce tons of nitrogen oxide emissions. The use of less energy is beneficial to the atmosphere as energy comes from fossil fuels, which may lead to acid rain. But on the other hand I think all the solutions should be followed thoroughly because so then the occurrence of acid rain can decrease dramatically. Reference The picture of the ph scale From-(http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/education/site_students/images/phscale.gif) The picture of the damaged statue From (http://tsandawesome.com/2009/11/23/nature-awesomeness-acid-rain/) The picture of fish affected by acid rain From (http://economicobjectorvism.wordpress.com/2007/07/19/china-wakes-up-to-the-dangers-of-pollution/) The picture of damaged trees From (http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/air-pollution-effects.html) The picture of acid rain diagram From (www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain) The picture of catalytic converter From (http://maremare1225.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/catalytic-converter-location.jpg) MOHAMMED ABDUL KALIK SHAHEEN ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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