• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What is Acid Rain? What are the effects of acid rain?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

MOHAMMED ABDUL KALIK SHAHEEN What is ACID RAIN? Introduction Task 1 - What is Acid Rain? A number of people believe that rain is damage free weather occurrence. Nevertheless the increase in acidity of rain is both unsafe and damaging. In order to understand acidity fully, it is necessary to know a little information about the pH scale. The ph scale has a number of varieties Listed from 0-14, anything with a ph lower than 7 (i.e. 0-6) is known to be acidic, and the one with ph 7 is neutral and all the rest with that have a ph higher than seven (i.e. 8-14) is known to be alkaline. This is a basic diagram showing the ph scale A change in only one unit is equal to a tenfold increase in the strength of the acid or base. Therefore a unit change from pH 4 to pH 6 is equal to a 10 x 10 increase in acidity. Taking the above into concern, it is easy to see how the original phenomenon "rain" is becoming more and more acidic as its pH has fallen from around 6 and 7 to about 4-3 and 5-3. In 1852 an English chemist called Robert Angus smith was first known to notice the incidence of acid rain. ...read more.

Middle

Nitrogen oxides are mainly emitted into the atmosphere by vehicle exhausts. They react with water to form nitric acid in the atmosphere. NO2 (g)+H2O (l)�HNO3 (aq)+HNO2(aq) [gas phase] In the aqueous phase there are three equilibrium that have to be considered for the oxidation of nitrogen oxide: * 2NO2(g)+H2O(l) 2H++NO3- +NO2- * NO (g)+NO2(g)+H2O (l) 2H+ +2NO2- * 3NO2(g)+H2O(l) 2H+ +2NO3-+2NO(g) The limited pressures of nitrogen oxides present in the low atmosphere, and the low solubility of nitrogen oxides limit the above reactions. There is an increase in the rate of the reactions only with the use of metal catalysts like in the case of the aqueous oxidation of sulphur dioxide. This is a basic diagram showing how acid rain works Task 3 - What are the effects of acid rain? Scientists have noticed that over the years some forests seem to be growing more and more slowly for no obvious reason. After the collection of information on the chemistry and the biology of the forests it has been proved that this is due to acid rain. When acid rain falls, the acidic rainwater dissolves the nutrients and helpful materials from the soil. These minerals are then washed away before trees other plants can use them to grow. ...read more.

Conclusion

5. All these acid rain solutions are pointless unless people are notified and educated about the effects and harms of acid rain. An extensive and nationwide effort must be made to make people aware. Only after that is done will all the acid rain solutions actually make a difference Conclusion Overall, acid rain is a big problem that should not know to every one because of its major effects. This occurrence ruins anything it comes into contact with. By affecting the environment acid rain affects humans on the long run as well. What we can do, to reduce the emission of gases that cause acid rain is to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Walking and public transportation can reduce tons of nitrogen oxide emissions. The use of less energy is beneficial to the atmosphere as energy comes from fossil fuels, which may lead to acid rain. But on the other hand I think all the solutions should be followed thoroughly because so then the occurrence of acid rain can decrease dramatically. Reference The picture of the ph scale From-(http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/education/site_students/images/phscale.gif) The picture of the damaged statue From (http://tsandawesome.com/2009/11/23/nature-awesomeness-acid-rain/) The picture of fish affected by acid rain From (http://economicobjectorvism.wordpress.com/2007/07/19/china-wakes-up-to-the-dangers-of-pollution/) The picture of damaged trees From (http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/air-pollution-effects.html) The picture of acid rain diagram From (www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain) The picture of catalytic converter From (http://maremare1225.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/catalytic-converter-location.jpg) MOHAMMED ABDUL KALIK SHAHEEN ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Chemical Reactions in the Kitchen

    In addition to protein, eggs also contain many vitamins and minerals. Omega-3 helps to build up cell membranes and protect us from cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids can help us to maintain a healthy heart, and so allow us to live longer.

  2. acid rain

    started on our first concentration of acid, we did a preliminary test to check that all equipment was working and to see the different effects of certain factors, for example we found using smaller marble chips reacted quicker than larger ones as the acid had more surface area to react with.

  1. GM foods - Harmful or Helpful

    Foods can also be created to be drought tolerant and so that they can withstand high concentrations of salt. This will help farmers are forced to grow crops in formerly unreceptive areas due to the fact that houses are being built on land more and more to suit the needs of the rapidly increasing world population.

  2. Design Lab- Acid Rain

    4NO2 + 2H20 + O2 --> 4HNO3 Limestone has long been preferred as building material for constructing durable buildings and monuments. Limestone consists of CaCO3 (Calcium Carbonate). Even though they are highly durable they are being eroded by acid rain.

  1. Investigating Phase Changes

    39.9 3 43.5 9.5 40 3.5 43 10 39.5 4 42.5 10.5 39.5 4.5 42 11 39 5 42 11.5 38.5 5.5 42 12 38 6 41.5 Observations Heating Curve At 28.5 degrees Celsius, a small amount of the unknown pure substance starts to liquefy.

  2. Extraction of metals and Alloys.

    This reduces iron in the ore into iron metal. Iron then drops to the bottom as liquid iron and is 'tapped off' as needed. Properties and Uses of Iron Iron is a magnetic metal. Iron from a Blast Furnace contains around 5% carbon which comes from the coke in the furnace.

  1. Acid rain is a well known term that is being heard more and more ...

    After many researches they had found the problem, the problem was very common metal called Aluminium. Aluminium combines with other elements in the earth, as it combines it cannot react with the water and destroy the fish and plants but easily acid from acid rain dissolve the bond between these elements.

  2. Human Impact On the Environment

    Other things that could happen are that diseases will spread as northern countries become warmer; insects which carry disease will migrate north and brings plague and disease with them. However, some scientists believe that in some countries malaria has not fully eradicated and is being revived in countries where it was disappeared from.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work