• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

What is the effect of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim: What is the effect of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction? To investigate the reaction between Magnesium (Mg) and Hydrochloric acid (Hcl) and see if by altering the concentration of Hydrochloric acid (Hcl) affects the speed of the reaction. Scientific Knowledge: Mg + 2Hcl MgCl2 + H2 Magnesium Hydrochloric acid Magnesium Hydrogen Chloride gas Reactants Products All substances are made up of particles. In liquids there is a distance between two particles, because in liquids the particles are not so closely packed together. In gases the particles are really far apart, and there is a substantial gap between the particles. However, in solids particles are closely packed together and there is no space or gap between two particles of solids. If, either in gases or liquids we give these particles a little energy then they start to move. In liquids the movement is not too great because the particles are not very far part, but in gases because the particles are really far apart and this means that particles start to run around. In solids though, particles are really closely packed together, so if they are given a little energy, the start to vibrate as they can't move around because of not having any space between them. This theory of particles moving in liquids and gases and vibrating in solids is called KINETIC THEORY. If the particles are moving around in liquids and gases than there is a good chance that these particles will collide with each other. In liquids there is a greater chance of particles colliding with each other, in comparison to the particles in gases as the particles in liquids are more closely packed and although there is space to move, the space is not as great as in gases. In solids there is no chance of particle colliding, as when these particles are given energy they can only vibrate. The collision of moving particles with other particles when they are moving around is called COLLISION THEORY. ...read more.

Middle

To start this experiment I will first measure 40cm� of 0.25 Hcl by using a measuring Cylinder and pour it in a conical flask. I would then do a check on the syringe to make sure that it is all the way in, because if it is not in, then the whole experiment could go wrong because it would give us the wrong information. I will also check that the stop watch has been reset, so that the time starts from 0. After doing the check I will connect the cork and the bent tube with ground glass syringe and get ready. If we have to do this experiment accurately, then we need two people for this. After connecting the cork and bent tube to the Ground glass syringe I will add 4cm of Magnesium to Hydrochloric acid in Conical flask and as soon as I have added Magnesium, I will quickly close the Conical flask, with the cork connected to the bent tube and my other partner will start the time as soon as the Magnesium is added to Hydrochloric acid. After 30 seconds on the stop watch, I will disconnect the cork with bent tube from the conical flask, so that no more Hydrogen gas (which is given off, when Hydrochloric acid reacts with Magnesium) passes from conical flask into Glass Ground syringe. We will calculate the rate of reaction of 0.25 Hcl with 4cm of Magnesium by measuring the volume of Hydrogen gas which managed to collect into the Ground Glass Syringe within 30 seconds. I would then record the volume of Hydrogen gas into a Table of results. I will repeat the experiment with 0.25 Hcl and 4cm of Mg three times, so that I can find an accurate average volume of gas which was collected in the syringe when 0.25 Hcl and 4cm of Mg reacted. To find if the rate of reaction increases as the concentration of acid goes up, I will repeat the same procedure which I used to measure the rate of reaction of 0.25 Hcl with 4cm of Mg. ...read more.

Conclusion

To validate and double check our results we can use another method of calculating rate of reaction by calculating loss of mass in reactants. To use this method we need conical flask, Hcl of different concentrations, Magnesium, electronic balance and a stop watch. In this experiment, we put 40cm� of Hcl of whichever concentration we want in conical flask and weigh it altogether. We then weigh 4cm of Magnesium and add its weight into the combined weight of Hcl and Conical flask. We then ready the stop watch and put Magnesium into the Hcl. The crucial difference between this method of calculating rates of reaction and the method we used in the experiment is that this method allows the Hydrogen gas to escape and measures the rate of reaction by comparing loss of mass with the time it took to lose that much mass. After I add Magnesium to Hydrochloric acid, I will start the stop watch and after 30 seconds, I will record the mass of the mixture, which should be less than before, as some of the Hydrogen gas must have escaped because of the reaction. I will then record the mass of the mixture after 60 and 90 seconds. To find the rate of reaction for that particular concentration of Hcl, I will have to use a formula which is; Loss of mass in reactants Unit I will then use exactly the same procedure for other concentrations of Hcl and by using this formula: Loss of mass in reactants / unit I should be able to find the rate of reaction. I will then put the results in a table of results and compare. If the procedure is done correctly, then the results form this method should not be different from the results of the method I used in my experiment. I we were to do the whole experiment again, to find out if concentration has any effect on the rate of reaction, I would certainly implement all of these corrections suggested in my Evaluation, so that I get results which are highly accurate. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium [Mg] and Hydrochloric ...

    4 star(s)

    it is reaching the activation rate breaking the bonds allowing the rate of reaction to increase. Surface Area- (2cm) (1cm) 2x2=4 1x1=1 4x6=24cm2 1x6=6 6x8=48cm2 * More surface area= More surface for successful collision * Increased rate of reaction The more surface are there is for the particles to hit the higher the rate of Reaction should be.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    For my experiment I am finding out the effects on the reaction rate when ...

    3 star(s)

    I measured out different amounts of water (4ml, 8ml, 12ml, 16ml, and 20ml) in the same way. I made sure that the stopwatch was reset and poured the measured out water and hydrochloric acid into the conical flask and stirred using a stirrer for five seconds.

  1. To investigate the effect of the concentration of nitric acid on the rate of ...

    Also, as temperature was not the variable which was being investigated, it should, ideally, have remained constant throughout the investigation. A second explanation for the occurrence of certain anomalies could be the fact that, when we added the nitric

  2. Rates of reaction between Magnesium and HCl.

    Equipment: Tripod Sodium thiosulphate solution Bunsen burner dilute hydrochloric acid Conical flask Thermometer Stopwatch Pen and paper Method: Firstly heat 50cm� of sodium thiosulphate solution to the appropriate temperature. Then place the conical flask on the cross and add 5cm� of the hydrochloric acid and time how long it takes for the cross to disappear.

  1. Rates of Reaction - HCl + Mg

    I decided that magnesium ribbon was best to use because magnesium powder reacted too fast which will make it hard to record results. I also decided increasing the acid molar by 0.5 is best because it doesn't give me very big changes or very little changes.

  2. Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

    One mole is 602,300 billion, billion molecules or atoms; this is usually written as 6.023 x 1023 and is called the Avogadro's number. In this case, I am using hydrochloric acid of a 2M solution, but diluting it with distilled water in order to test the affect that concentration has on rate of reaction.

  1. Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid (Hcl) and Magnesium (Mg).

    The collision theory comes into play concerning the speed. When the atoms gain more kinetic energy they move around faster, and therefore more atoms collide more often. * Concentration of the acid If you increase the concentration of the acid you increase the number of hydrochloric acid particles in the solution.

  2. Find out how the rate of hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on ...

    Finding the order of reaction: In order to find the order of reaction, experiments must be carried out. Most reactions involve more than one reactant, and in this case several experiments must be carried out, to find the order with respect to each reactant separately.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work