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What is the rate of reaction and how is it measured?

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Introduction

Change in amount of substance Rate of reaction = Time taken for the change to occur What is the rate of reaction and how is it measured? The phrase rate of reaction means how fast is the reaction. It can be measured as the rate of formation of product or the rate of disappearance of reactant. Aim This experiment involves investigating factors that influence the rate of reaction. I will see if a reaction becomes faster or slower by altering certain conditions. The condition that I will be altering is the concentration of one of the reactants. The reaction I will be investigating is between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Equation The equation of this reaction is Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water CaCO3 + 2HCL CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O Factors that affect the rate of reaction For this experiment I will explore what affects the rate of reaction when limestone (calcium Carbonate) is added to hydrochloric acid. Some variables that can influence the rate of reaction are: * Concentration of acid (how many molars it has) - if the concentration is increased, there is likely to be more collisions between the particles therefore activating the chemical reaction between them more often, thus making the reaction occur faster. * Increasing the concentration, increases the probability of a collision between reactant particles because there are more of them in the same volume. ...read more.

Middle

a bung * A stop watch- Will be used to measure the time * Some marble chips- Needed for reaction to take place * 1M hydrochloric acid- Needed for reaction to take place * Retort stands and clamp- to hold the measuring tube in place * Safety goggles * 25 cm3 plastic syringe * Top-pan balance * Bung Method 1. Firstly I measured the mass of 7 marble chips; they all needed to have the same mass to ensure a fair test. In the trial test we chose to use 30g marble chips but found they were not very responsive, therefore we increased the mass to 90g and this provided us with consistent results. 2. The next step was to dilute the acid concentrations with water to vary the acid concentration levels. 3. After all the reactants were ready, the equipment had to be set up. The diagram above shows the way in which my apparatus was set up. 4. After everything was ready and set, we began experimenting. Firstly we started with solution 1, which consisted of 25cm3 hydrochloric acid and no water. Each individual solution was experimented for 90 seconds. The reason for this is explained below. 5. We then trailed the rest of the solutions, the description of each solution can be found on page 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results that I obtained were sufficient enough to reach a conclusion. My graphs all share a positive correlation showing that an increase in concentration affects the rate of reaction. My results were in agreement with the collision theory. I feel that by conducting the experiment twice for a change in concentration was not enough. Because I believe that from to results an accurate average can not be received. If the tests had been carried out more than three times for each solution the results would have given a more accurate mean value. With more tests there is a smaller margin for error. 'Freak results' would be masked by other results. I feel I was successful in maintaining the experiment a fair test, although I found controlling the mass of the marble chips difficult. If I were doing this again, I would get digital scales to help me achieve accurate measurements. However I believe I was successful whilst diluting the acid, using a cylinder and syringe helped. To extend the investigation I could use powdered marble chips to see if this created a difference, or try adding a catalyst which would speed up the experiment, but would not be lost at the end, to compare with the results I have now, to see how the difference of speed of the reaction changes. I could also test other factors such as surface area and temperature to move the experiment further. ?? ?? ?? ?? What affects the rate of reaction? Reshmal Barot Page 1 of 8 ...read more.

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