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What will happen to Limestone buildings if we burn more fossil fuels?

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Introduction

What will happen to Limestone buildings if we burn more fossil fuels? Introduction Some buildings around cities are made from Limestone. For example the Minster in York. Over the years some features of the building have been warn away, this is due to acid rain. Acid rain has many other effects on life around us. It Also: * Acidifies Lakes and ponds * Metal ions being washed out of soil * Damage to the gill of fish * Nutrients drained of leaves and soils * Roots damage to tree leading to poor water intake Acid rain is created by two main sources 1. Power stations: produce sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides 2. Cars and transport: Cars and Lorries produce Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out if the concentration of acid in acid rain causes limestone to erode more quickly. This can be summed up as:- Burning of fossil fuels more concentrated Acid Rain The reaction I will investigate will be between hydrochloric acid and limestone. Word Equation Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Water + Carbon Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide Chemical Equation CaCO3(s) ...read more.

Middle

Then I measured out 8ml of water and added this to the acid. I then weighed out 5g of limestone chips. I then filled the tub half full with water; I also filled a large measuring cylinder with water too and submerged it in the water. I the used the stand and boss clamp to secure the boiling tube near to the tub so that I could feed the tubing from the bung into the submerged cylinder. Once I had made sure this was set up correctly I then mixed thee limestone and acid solution together in the boiling tube and started the timer. I recorded how much gas had been collected every ten seconds until it had stopped reacting. I then repeated this but using the other solution that I had chosen. Preliminary results 4cm3 Acid 8cm3 water Time Seconds Volume Of gas collected Cm3 10 9 20 17 30 24 10 26 50 30 60 35 70 38 80 39 90 41 100 41 8cm3 acid 4cm3 Water Time seconds Volume of gas Collected Cm3 10 41 20 67 30 89 40 Stopped Conclusion In conclusion I think that the greater the concentration the acid is, the quicker the reaction rate will be between the acid and limestone. ...read more.

Conclusion

From my results you can see that the higher the concentration of acid the faster a larger amount of gas was collected. You can also see this on my graph. They are shown by steeper lines showing that a reaction was quick. Evaluation I think that results clearly show that the more concentrated the acid rain then the faster the limestone will erode. Most of my results look accurate except for one in c. I think this because I may have been a bit late timing it. But I could have made my results more accurate if I had more time. For example if I had of had time I would have liked to of made sure that all of the chips were the same size and that I used the same amount for each test (5 pieces weighting 2g each). Would also have liked to get exact amounts of gas released, as it was hard to read the cylinder accurately. To do this I would use a gas syringe. The tests could have been continued by using more dilutions, and also doing it at different temperatures. For example erosion of limestone may happen quicker when it is warmer compared to when it is freezing or cold. ...read more.

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