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Whats in the bottle?

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Introduction

Science Coursework What's in the bottle? 05/03/09 Experiment Lesson Write-up Alcohols - What's in the Bottle? Method; Detecting Alcohols: * Put a few drops of alcohol in a test tube * Add some sodium dichromate and a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. * Gently warm * Note down your observations Method; Detecting Sugars: * Add some sugar to a test tube, dissolve the powder to water and gently warm if necessary * Add a small account of Benedict's solution * Gently warm Results: In the first experiment I saw the liquid colour change from orange to green. In the second experiment I saw the blue solution turn into a brick red precipitate. 12\03\09 & 13\03\09F Experiment Lesson Write-up Testing for metal, positive ions and negative ions - What's in the Bottle? 12/03/09 Testing for Metals: To show the presence of various metals, if any. Method; * Open the air hole of the Bunsen burner * Heat a piece of nichrome wire in a Bunsen flame until the flame is no longer coloured * Dip the loop at the end of the wire into some acid * Dip the loop into an unknown salt * Hold the wire into the edge of the flame * Record the colour and identify the carbon using the table below. ...read more.

Middle

Alkenes - A hydrocarbon that has 1 C=C bond (double). Alcohols - An organic molecule that contains an O - H bond. Aldehydes - An organic molecule that contains a C=O bond. Formed when an alcohol is oxidised. IR Spectroscopy IR radiation is shone on the molecules. The bonds absorb energy at different frequencies and start to vibrate. We can measure the frequency at which the actual bond vibrates and we use it to determine the functional group present. 20\03\09F & 26\03\09 Experiment Lesson Write-up Coursework Write-up - What's in the Bottle? Testing for negative ions: Results; Sample A B C Carbonate (CO32-) Nothing happened Nothing happened Nothing happened Chloride (Cl-) Bromide (Br_) Iodide (I-) Yellow Precipitate Nothing happened Nothing happened Sulphate (SO42-) Nothing happened White cloudy milkish liquid Nothing happened Hydroxide (OH-) Nothing happened Nothing happened Nothing happened Final outcome: A - Iodide (I-) B - Sulphate (SO42-) C - Nothing happened Testing for metals: Results; Sample Observations A Pinky - orange B Bright orange C Nothing occured Final outcome: A - Potassium B - Sodium C - Not applicable. Testing for alcohols Results; Sample Reaction occurred? ...read more.

Conclusion

The Police, F.B.I., and other detectives use chromatography when trying to solve a crime. It is also used to determine the presence of cocaine in urine, alcohol in blood, PCB's in fish, and lead in water. Also to test water samples to look for pollution, detect bombs in airports, identify and measure the amounts (volumes) of such drugs as alcohol, used in forensics to compare fibers found on a victim, detecting pesticide or insecticide residues in food, also used in forensics to analyze the dye composition of fibers, separating amino acids and anions, RNA fingerprinting, separating and testing histamines, antibiotics, for separating organic and inorganic compounds so that they can be analyzed and studied, Toxicology, In sports medicine, any illegal drugs will be picked up using chromatographic techniques. (e.g.: Gas chromatography). These are just a few of the uses of Chromatography; there are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of uses for chromatography. How do we use the results we attain from chromatography? We analyze the results after development, by matching the corresponding spots to different compounds by locating them by their colour, ultraviolet light, ninhydrin (Triketohydrindane hydrate) or by treatment with iodine vapors. http://www.doggedresearch.com/chromo/chromatography.htm http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/Chem_img006.gif http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/quick/csustan/chrom.gif http://www.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20061022202156AAEvgI2 http://www.peer.tamu.edu/podium_poster_presentations/Paper%20Chromatography.ppt http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatography http://www.wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_uses_chromatography http://www.wjec.co.uk/uploads/publications/5403.pdf http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5466377.html http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/chromatography.htm ...read more.

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