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Which combinations will produce the largest voltage in different concentrations of solutions and will diluting the solution change the voltage?

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Aim: Which combinations will produce the largest voltage in different concentrations of solutions and will diluting the solution change the voltage? Apparatus: 8 metals, 2 Non-metals (5 different types) Copper Zinc Aluminium Lead Carbon Beaker Voltmeter Two Crocodile clips Measuring cylinder 80ml of saturated salt water 80ml of hydrochloric acid Water Diagram: Background knowledge: Before doing this experiment I already know that, Aluminium; carbon and zinc are fairly reactive towards other substances while copper and lead are not very reactive at all towards other substances. So I think that copper and lead will not create a high voltage, with each other and other of the metals listed in the apparatus. But zinc, carbon and aluminium will give a fairly high voltage towards each other. But in the experiment hydrochloric acid is involved too, and I know that hydrochloric acid makes hydrogen, when reacted with metals, and is very useful in the stomach to kill off bacteria. In the reactivity series, anything below hydrogen, e.g. copper; will not react with acid. But anything higher will show a visible reaction. Method 1: I will pour 80ml of hydrochloric acid into a beaker. Then I will set up the voltmeter by placing the crocodile clips in the correct places. ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat the experiment 3 times, so if anything goes wrong you have two other results to back you up. Health and safety: I know that in this experiment acid is used. Acid can be very dangerous, if not taken seriously, so I need to make sure that during this experiment I wear safety glasses to protect my eyes. Also glass is involved in the experiment, meaning I need to be cautious with these apparatus, if I'm not cautious I may drop the glass on the floor and find that the glass has smashed, the glass may even cut or scar me. Results: After pairing up the metals three times and giving the result an average, here were the results: Hydrochloric acid: Metals Carbon Copper Zinc Aluminium Lead Carbon 0.01 V 1.72 V 1.85 V 0.92 V 1.37 V Copper 1.72 V 0.03 V 0.78 V 0.60 V 0.25 V Zinc 1.85 V 0.78 V 0.00 V 0.18 V 0.49 V Aluminium 0.92 V 0.60 V 0.18 V 0.12 V 0.30 V Lead 1.37 V 0.25 V 0.49 V 0.30 V 0.00 V The best combined metals in hydrochloric acid was zinc and Carbon. To further this experiment on, I diluted the solution and measured the voltage of zinc and carbon. ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion: The best combination was zinc and carbon in half-diluted saturated salt solution. The second best combination was carbon and zinc, again, in 1mola of hydrochloric acid. Carbon and zinc had the best voltage because they were the both fairly reactive towards acids and water. The results compared to my prediction were correct, I knew that carbon would create the highest voltage, due to its position in the reactivity series. The reason zinc produced the highest voltage, with carbon, is because it's almost as reactive as carbon. Evaluation: The experiment wasn't a very accurate experiment. One reason is because it was fairly hard to write down a correct result. Reading from the voltmeter was very difficult as it never stopped on a proper result, the result just increased and then decreased. I would Also there was a lack of metals, so with the metals I did have I had to recycle them, and some of them dissolved slightly, meaning that there were not as many particles inside. To improve this procedure I would: * Use more metals, so I get a wider range of combinations. * Repeat diluting the solution at least 5 times to get an accurate average. * Include some more solutions, e.g 2molas of hydrochloric acid. To give me a wider range of solutions, and their voltages. * Leave the voltmeter for 10 sec's and then write down the results. ...read more.

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