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Who’s Cheating on the Vinegar?

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Introduction

Who's Cheating on the Vinegar? Introduction: This is an investigation to discover which, if any, fish and chip shops are diluting their vinegar, and therefore cheating their customers. This is carried out by testing different solutions of vinegar and comparing their concentration to that of Solution A which has not been diluted. A pilot experiment was done first to ensure the method worked. Theory: Neutralisation occurs when an acid and a base react and neutralise each other. This can be shown using the pH scale, all acids have a pH of below 7 and all bases have a pH of over 7. When the substance is neutral the pH is 7. The neutralisation reaction is shown like this: ACID + BASE --> SALT + WATER[NM1] Vinegar is made from Ethanoic acid which is obtained by oxidising Ethanol. Its symbol equation is CH3COOH. As it is an acid, it can be neutralised. The equation for this is shown above, in this experiment we used Sodium Hydroxide as the base. This was the equation: CH3COOH + NaOH --> CH3COONa + H2O The result is that Sodium Ethanoate and water is formed and the acid is neutralised. ...read more.

Middle

6)The alkali was added to the acid slowly, by cradling the burette tap with the left hand and using the right to swirl the conical flask. 7)All colour change was observed, when a strike of pink was seen, that wouldn't disappear, the alkali was added slower. 8)When sufficient alkali had been added to the acid, the reading was taken and recorded. 9)A final titre was recorded. 10)This was repeated with solutions B, C, D and E. Results: Vinegar A Vinegar B Vinegar D Initial Burette reading (cm3) 2.00 2.00 11.00 Final burette reading (cm3) 15.6 10.4 23.00 Volume of alkali used (cm3) 13.6 8.40 12.00 Analysis: We can tell from this pilot that some of the solutions has been diluted. Solution A shows the amount of alkali that should be used to neutralise vinegar that has not been diluted. However, we can see that for some of the other vinegar, the amount of alkali is less, which shows that it has been diluted. Having obtained the rough titre from this experiment we can be more accurate in the real experiment. In the real experiment, I will increase my range by testing Solutions C and E as well. I will also repeat the tests to ensure a valid result. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is colourless in acids and pink in alkalis. 5)The Conical Flask was placed beneath the burette and on a white tile to enable any colour change to be seen easily. 6)The alkali was added to the acid slowly, by cradling the burette tap with the left hand and using the right to swirl the conical flask. 7)All colour change was observed, when a strike of pink was seen, that wouldn't disappear, the alkali was added slower. 8)When sufficient alkali had been added to the acid, the reading was taken and recorded. 9)A final titre was recorded. 10)This was repeated with solutions B, C, D and E ensuring that the apparatus was washed out thoroughly each time. Results: Solution Initial reading (cm3) Final Reading (cm3) Volume of alkali used (cm3) Average (cm3) A 2.00 14.7 14.5 27.1 12.5 12.4 12.45 B 0.00 15.7 7.90 23.4 7.80 7.70 7.75 C 0.00 2.60 2.60 5.20 2.60 2.60 2.60 D 7.80 18.2 28.19 18.20 28.1 38.1 10.4 9.9 10.1 10.0 E 8.30 13.30 13.3 18.3 5.0 5.0 5.0 I only got one anomolous result. This is a result which is very different to the others, which means that an error has been made in that test. Anomolous results should be ringed, and I have not included it in my average. Calculations: [NM1] ...read more.

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