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Why and how do Atoms bond?

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Introduction

Why and how do Atoms bond? To put it simply, Atoms bond together to get full shells of outer shell electrons. The results in a stable electronic structure and in many cases a new compound - in fact the electronic structure of the nearest Noble gas. The so called 'Noble Gases' are simply elements which have full outer shells of electrons. So, the aim of every atom is to fill its outer electron shell. But, how? There are various ways in which Atoms bond. ...read more.

Middle

Many compounds around us are molecular compounds - Alcohol, Ammonia, Water etc etc. You also find elements composed of molecules. In the case of Oxygen gas, the formula would be O2 because 2 atoms of Oxygen bond together and go around in pairs - this results in full outer shells of electrons and so both atoms feel 'happy'. Ionic Bonding: This type of bonding occurs in compounds such as Copper Sulphate, Sodium Chloride (Table Salt) etc. The basis of this type of bonding is that a giant 3d structure of ions (atoms which have lost or gained electrons) is formed. ...read more.

Conclusion

shell. Chlorine Gas is composed of Chlorine Molecules (which, again, if we forget about separating the individual atoms, is made up of Chlorine atoms). Each Chlorine atom wishes to gain an electron. The solution? Each Sodium atom loses an electron from its valency shell and gives it to a Chlorine atom. Now each atom has full shells of electrons. This swapping of electrons results in each sodium atom becoming a 1+ ion (lost 1 electron) and each Chlorine atom becoming a 1- ion (gained 1 electron). This difference in charges results in an attraction between the ions and from then on a giant 3d structure of these ions forms resulting in the creation of a crystal. ...read more.

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