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# Why Do Penguins Huddle

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why Do Penguins Huddle? Preliminary Work and Knowledge: Hypothesis: I predict that penguins huddle to keep warm. This is because when they are all grouped together, the head radiated by those not on the outside will be transferred to the ones next to them, and vice-versa, so almost all heat loss is prevented. The other is insulation. With the penguins all standing next to each other the heat loss effect again will be minimized by the insulation due to the penguins standing next to each other. The third reason it will help them keep warm is that the overall surface area of the penguins huddled together will be less than if they were all standing on their own, thus the heat loss will be less. These reasons added to the fact that penguins generate heat in their bodies means that the group as a whole will stay warm for a very much longer time than they would on their own. I believe this is a reasonable explanation as is explains how huddling helps penguins to survive. Experiment: To evidence my hypothesis I am going to perform an experiment to demonstrate the idea that huddling will keep penguins warm. To evidence this idea I will use water filled test tubes to represent penguins. ...read more.

Middle

The results will be recorded to the best of the accuracy allowed by the used thermometer, and I shall be careful to read it accurately to within 0.5 of a degree. Diagram: Factors That May Affect The Experiment and How I Will Control Them: Volume of water in test tubes: 1 cm below full Temperature of water: 50 degrees centigrade Results (as averages of each of the three tries) *: For One Test Tube For Seven Test Tubes For 19 Test Tubes Time (Minutes) Temperature (�c) Inside Tube (�c) Outer Tube(�c) Inner Tube (�c) Middle Tube (�c) Outer Tube (�c) 00:00 50 50 50 50 50 50 00:30 45 47 45 50 48 47 01:00 44 46 44.5 49 47 45 01:30 42.5 46 44 48.5 46 44 02:00 42 46 44 48.5 46 43 02:30 41 45 43.5 48 45 43 03:00 40.5 44.5 43 48 44.5 42.5 03:30 39.5 44 43 47.5 44.5 42 04:00 38.5 43.5 42 47 44 42 04:30 38 43 42 47 43.5 42 05:00 37.5 43 42 47 43 42 05:30 37 42 41.5 47 43 41.5 06:00 36.5 42 41 46.5 43 41.5 06:30 36 41.5 41 46.5 42.5 41 07:00 36 41 40.5 46 42.5 41 07:30 35.5 41 40 46 42 41 08:00 35 40.5 40 45.5 42 40.5 08:30 34.5 ...read more.

Conclusion

is the only main one that is inconsistent with the rest in it's range, which is one the cluster of seven tubes on the outer layer (circled in red on it's graph and on the table of results). To improve this I might use electronic thermometers that are easier to read (and more accurate) and also just do basic things like having the stopwatch beep to remind me to take results on time, and to be efficient (e.g. turn thermometers to face me after using them). I do think though, considering this that the experiment was planned and done well enough anyway, and that it was definite and suitable enough to support my prediction and to draw my conclusion, and in fact it would have had to be a lot worse to be considered unreliable to not draw the same things. For further work to improve the accuracy of the work I would follow my plan more accurately, doing 5 experiments instead of three. This would further demonstrate the extend of the validity of my conclusion. I would also use electronic thermometers, and use two for each measurement to test for any inaccuracies in the equipment. These two things together would provide me with a much more accurate and reliable set of results, which would even more greatly demonstrate my conclusion!!! ...read more.

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