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You are taking a group of people to the arctic. Design an experiment, which will enable you to choose the best lining material for jackets to wear.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATION: You are taking a group of people to the arctic. Design an experiment, which will enable you to choose the best lining material for jackets to wear. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: The environment of a living organism is always changing. Think about your own environment. The temperature of the air around you changes e.g. it can be -10oc outside and 23oc indoors. The cells inside your body, however, do not have to put up with a changing environment. Your body keeps the environment inside your body almost the same all the time. This is called homeostasis. This is very important. It helps your cells to work as efficiently as possible. When your body drops below 37oc, messages from the hypothalamus cause your skin to cut down the rate of heat loss. Firstly your hairs stand on end, which on an animal is very effective as lots of air pockets are formed, but this is not as effective for humans. Secondly the capillaries narrow, minimizing heat loss. Also you may start to shiver which is just a faint contraction and relaxation of muscles. Animals living in very cold temperatures survive by moving very little or not at all. Cold temperatures in poikilothermic animals slow down chemical reactions therefore slowing down the activity of the organism. The size or surface area of an animal or beaker does make a difference. The larger the surface area the more heat that will be lost. ...read more.

Middle

Out of the three materials that I chose to investigate I think that cotton wool will be the best at reducing the heat loss. I am saying this because inside cotton wool there are many small pockets of trapped air, and air is a very good insulator in small pockets. I also am suggesting that the control experiment will be the worst because there is no insulation protecting it. APPARATUS: test tube rack 8 test tubes material 8 thermometers stop clock kettle Elastic bands METHOD: I will boil some water from the kettle then pour some water from the kettle into each test tube that has been wrapped in the certain material. A thermometer shall be placed into each test tube and the temperature recorded at the beginning of the experiment. I will record the temperature every 5 minutes over a 30-minute period. To make my results reliable I will use a control and test everything I do twice to get an accurate average result. SAFETY: Safety precautions are needed because I am dealing with hot water, which can scald. The following things need to be acknowledged to, in order to keep this experiment safe: Time-minutes Control Bubble wrap Cotton Wool 1 2 A D 1 2 A D 1 2 A D 1 2 A D 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 � Be careful not to knock over the vessel with the hot water in � Be careful not to knock over other peoples vessels � Care is needed when pouring hot water � Do ...read more.

Conclusion

EVALUATION: I feel that the experiment I carried out was not as fair as I would have liked it to be. I could have had the temperatures at the start all-equal; I could have measured my volumes more accurately and used more precise amounts of material on the test tubes to make the test fairer. I also feel that I could have made my readings more accurate and take a larger amount of timings for more results. I feel the experiment would have been improved if I had done all these things very precisely and maybe I would have slightly better results. Even though my experiment was not exactly the best my prediction still matched my results in the end, that the wool was the best then cotton then bubble wrap then the control. I do feel that I can conclusively say that wool would be the best lining for a jacket to keep someone warm in the arctic because it traps pockets of air creating warmth. I did find some strange results in my results. This may be down to the impreciseness of my work. In the cotton experiment the temperatures of my first test and second test were the same. I feel that this was my most precise experiment. I have designed an experiment and carried it out. I have obtained results, plotted them on a graph and explained what I have found. I have finally concluded that I will use wool in the lining of my jacket. ...read more.

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