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Measure of Social Class - Standard Occupational Classification & National Statistics Socio Economic Classification
Changes linked to the upgrading of skills but the de-skilling of manufacturing processes and the recognition of development of customer services occupations. The main priority was to bring the classification up to date to reflect changes in society. SOC 2000 Major groups 1. Managers and senior officials 2. Professional occupations 3. Associate professional and technical occupations 4. Administrative and secretarial occupations 5. Skilled trades' occupations 6. Personal service occupations 7. Sales and customer service occupations 8. Process, plant and machine operatives 9. Elementary occupations SOC90 changed group sizes when revised to SOC2000 National Statistics Socio Economic Classification NS-SEC 1.
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Karl Marx believed that harmony could never last forever and that conflict would occur. He also recognised that it was economic factors that largely shaped society. He also said that history of human society is a process of change tension and conflict. Social change is a not a smooth orderly progression that gradually unfolds reaching harmony at the other end. Society includes many contradictions that form the tension and provide the means for open conflict and radical change. It starts with the idea that in order for humans to survive they must trade, trading their produce gives and economy.
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Therefore, according to Durkheim, religion expressed the values of society, and strengthened the group of people who practiced it. He thought the fundamental need for religious belief would always remain, as it was the way that the society found its identity, and he quoted: "There can be no society which does not feel the need if upholding and reaffirming at regular intervals the collective ideas which make its unity and personality". This shows that Durkheim's belief that religion was necessary in order for society to function together and that the real object of religious veneration is not a god, but society itself.
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The family acts as a social control and teaches its new members primary socialization. Functionalists also believe that if children develop into a stable adult, they are able to be brought up by parents living under the same roof, the children are thought to do better educationally physically, psychologically and socially then single parents. And children with lone parent families are thereby more disadvantaged. 'In one parent families parents do not take on personal, active and long term responsibility for their social upbringing of their children' There is evidence available that these children in average tend to die earlier, to have more illness, to do less well at school, to suffer of unemployment, to be more prone of crime and finally to repeat the cycle of unstable parenting from which they themselves have suffered.
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Playing cards was another form of entertainment, which leads to gambling where many fortunes were lost. Talented girls who were born with intelligence were encouraged to pursue a career in accountancy. Although the Rivals were written during the Georgian period, the play did not reflect on this. In the Rivals the centre of entertainment seemed to be the city of Bath people went there for pleasure and to bath in the waters, which were built by the Roman. They believed that it had special healing powers and for some the main reason for the trip to Bath was for this reason.
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'Durkheim's view that religion reinforces the conscience of society is more appropriate to an understanding of small non-literate societies than it is to modern diversified societies'.
He said if this did not exist there would be no social order, control, solidarity or cooperation. Therefore religion helps maintain society. Durkheim's research was based on Australian aborigines, and in particular Totemism, where each tribe worshiped their totem, which represented their society, and Durkheim drew from this that religion is just worshipping society, as this was what they were doing. The criticisms of Durkheim are that his research on the aborigines isn't really applicable to modern societies, which he did not consider controversial or dysfunctional religions, who go against wider society's norms and values.
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Durkheim collected data on suicide statistics and compared them to produce a set of laws on suicide which said the more integrated a person was with society the less likely they were to commit suicide. He also found that people who belonged to Protestant religion were more likely to commit suicide than Catholics. Popper believed in the scientific method, he believed in a ''continuous quest for knowledge'', Popper felt scientists should search for evidence and modify existing knowledge, Popper believed true science would involve not just proving facts but prove to falsify past truths as well.
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Secondly, a comparative dimension is required in order to test the symmetrical family thesis. This can be achieved by using your respondents' parents to represent a previous generation. Sample Type: A stratified random sample can be used if factors such as social class or the number of children (and their ages) within the group are to be considered. If not, a simple random sample or, if necessary, an opportunity sample can be used. Sample Size: Depending on the method of research used, 10 families should suffice.
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Adapting the ideas of Durkheim, Merton's ideas were more refined. Whereas Durkheim suggested that sudden social changes may lead to deviant actions, Merton theorised that the problem was "a social structure that holds out the same goals to all its members without giving them equal means to achieve them." Merton's theories, although they do not focus specifically on either crime or subcultures, do explore the theories of anomie, which in turn paves the way for subculture theories. If people are forced to result to deviant means in order to maintain or reach a place in society, then they may often pass these views or skills on to others.
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of all ages. Some of the anxieties that come with the entertainment industry's perception of "what is attractive" have the tendency to lead to serious problems such as low self-esteem and eating disorders. From a young age girls have faced the pressure of achieving physical perfection even from the toys they play with; the unrealistic body-perfect measurements of the popular childhood toy Barbie. Little girls love from Britain to Brazil love Barbie. Barbie is one of the best-selling toys in the world and could explain why Barbie has been accused of setting a negative stereotype for children in society.
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Outline and evaluate the process of Labelling and self-fulfilling prophecy As factors in the under achievement of Some pupils in school.
Parson was criticised on his theory for failing to give consideration to the possibilities that values transmitted from the system maybe those of a ruling minority, rather than society as a whole. Marxist Pierre Bourdieu argued the role in education system was to reinforce class differences, he believed that it was achieved by promoting the 'Dominant Culture' of the ruling classes in the classroom through use of language, ensuring working class students were less likely to understand or be understood.
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To what extend does the change in the Bahamian family structure lead to the many social problems in our society today?
When we didn't and our parents found out we were given a good scolding and then beating." remembers an interviewee. Now however it is becoming increasing popular among the ' young people' to ' walk on by like we older folks don't exist'. Children were taught to be seen and not heard in those days. They were to stay quiet in the presence of grown- ups, no matter how much they wanted to join in the conversation. Again we see the difference in today's young people. For, now if they think they have a valuable conversation they do, whether they are asked to or not.
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Even if the profit being made was falling; it still continued to make a profit. This is shown in source C. The miners and the locals would have made benefited a lot from living in the cottages. The cottages had good living conditions for its time. To them it was very good housing. A minor reason is the lock keepers cottage employed people for jobs. Again, this was very beneficial to the working class. The pump house was very beneficial. The pump house stopped the mines from flooding which benefited the miners, and also pumped water into the canal where it was needed.
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It is the state's duty to enforce the Law of Nature, protecting the citizen's "life, liberty and estate". Just as the individual is contracted to obey the state, so too is the sovereign contracted to protect the rights of those it is ruling. If the sovereign fails to do this then people have a right to remove the sovereign, withdrawing their consent. People can consent via "express consent", a declaration of consent, for example, the American salutation of their flag.
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Nozick wishes to build a meritocracy. Those who deserve to be wealthy, are, those who have not the talents to earn wealth, are not. Society would be unequal because talents are unequally distributed. Inequality would also provide an incentive for people to work in order to earn more wealth. Nozick's Libertarianism seems fair and convincing on the surface but has many critics. The Marxist philosopher G. A. Cohen points out that power in society is unevenly distributed. People at the top of society will find it much easier to remain there than for some one at the bottom of the social scale.
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During the exposition we learn that Sammy is working one of the cash registers. Later in the story we are told that he is 19 years old and by his description of how his parents treat company we can assume he comes from a middle class family. We are lead to believe during Sammys narration that the three girls, on the other hand, come from a rich or high societal background. The way Queenie is described by Sammy as having prima-donna legs and walking slow while holding herself straight paints a portrait of a high society woman.
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A detailed background of the drug needs to be outlined. This will include the harmful and beneficial biological effects of cannabis, the consequences of recreational use socially, the current legal status of cannabis within the UK and the epidemiology of the use and abuse of the drug. The essay will then go on to discuss the perceptions and opinions of the general public regarding the use of cannabis in a recreational sense and as a treatment for pain relief in many medical conditions. Cannabis is illegal in the UK. Illegal drugs are classified, according to the extent of their health and social implications, as Class A, Class B or Class C (1).
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Freedom Is Within You - Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neal Hurston & Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison.
He finds success is none of this. He didn't find the answer to his search until he found the importance of his individual identity. The narrator realizes that the only escape from societies constricts is to find his individual desires. Once he can find these, he is no longer a part of a black society which is being treated like sub humans, but he can become a self defined individual who stand for themselves. The narrator finds it necessary to literally take himself out of society in order to escape the constrains of every day life.
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In the movie Emory is responsible for making these advertisements, when he turns honest and approaches these products honestly e.g. "The Freak" the company he works for puts him in a mental institution to "Recover". Ironically the ad works and sells the agency changes its attitude and as suspected wants the best piece of the pie. The movie shows how creatively manipulative these agencies are, and that they would do anything to make profit from anything. As long as they get the money they are willing to do anything and everything.
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How does Bordieu use the concept of "habitus" to overcome the antinomy between subjectivism and objectivism?
Bordieu refers to this sort of second nature or intuition as "habitus". "Habitus designates the system of durable and transposable dispositions through which we percieve, judge and act in the world". Outline the central thesis of Distinction. Here Bordieu is offering a "social critique of the judgement of taste". He explains how asthetic judgement is a product of your class and upbringing and how you appreciate something for example a work of art depends on your cultural education or capital.
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By definition, individualistic means that something is explained in terms of the individual, rather than in terms of social groups. This way of looking at things is particularly prominent in Western societies, with former British Conservative Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, proclaiming, "there is no such thing as society". By employing this theory, it is seen to be the position of the individual to bring about change, for example, in a cultural role there is an influence on people to listen to a particular type of music or dress in a certain way.
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In "The Epic of Gilgamesh", the similarities and differences between primal and archaic societies can easily be spotted.
The idea of animism can be seen in festivals and celebrations, and was shown throughout the Gligamesh story. Primal religiosity was also dramatically different than the culture and religion in Gilgamesh. Primal religions tribes were mainly groups of people traveling around like nomads in search of food and shelter. They also based their way of life by their symbolic animal called totem. This is in deep contrast to the society in Gilgamesh were they stayed in one place, were egalitarian based, and lived in one city ruled by kings and a social hierarchy.
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These traditional functions of the family would have been taken up by outside agencies such as the workplace, schools, hospitals, police and so on. The Item discusses Parson's argument further as he believes that the nuclear family 'was particularly well suited to an industrial economy' due to role specialisation and the fact it could be 'geographically mobile'. This item therefore agrees with the statement above as it states that the structure of the family changed with industrial society. Parsons has provided a valuable contribution to this study of the change in family structure and argues that role conflict is another reason for the break-up of the extended family.
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Using information from the Items and elsewhere, assess the view that the nuclear family constitutes an ideal living arrangement for individuals and society.
Family is regarded as highly important, both for the individual and society as a whole. Item C outlines functionalisism by saying that family provides an orderly means of reproduction, provides economic and physical support for children, socialises and educates children into the values and traditions of adult life, and provides emotional support. This not only benifits the child whilst growing up, by providing what is considered a stable home, but also teaches behavioural norms which will aid in adult life, and therefore create a sense of belonging in society. Primary socialisation is important, with children learning off their role models (parents).
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Evaluate arguments for and against the claim that religion is essentially a conservative force in society.
He says that the linking into communities arise because people practice together. He feels that the rituals they practice increase social solidarity. He felt that social life is impossible without the shared values and moral beliefs that form the collective conscience. Durkheim believes that without the presence of these things there would be no social order, social control, social solidarity or cooperation. Someone that supports Durkhiems view that religion has reinforcing social norms and values is Malinowski. However unlike Durkheim he does not see religion as a reflection of society as a whole in addition he does not see religious ritual as the worship of society itself.
- Word count: 916