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GCSE: Sociology

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  1. HG Wells View Of Humanity - The Time Machine

    To study in depth the "Time Machine's" portrayal of humanity we must further look into the different societies at different periods of the novel and find out the "Time Machine's " views on these social groups. Being strictly chronological, the first society that we must look at in order to make a comparison was the society of law and order to which he belonged, Victorian England. A poor time and place to live in, the common folk scarcely made enough money to survive and disease soon spread among the cities and eventually caused London to smell repulsively.

    • Word count: 1599
  2. This essay will compare two different sociological perspectives Marxism and Functionalism through society and sport, highlighting the benefits and problems.

    want to make more money from the proletariat (fans) (Jarvie, 2006). A Functionalist's perspective in contrast believes in consensus within society. Functionalism is often related with thoughts of �mile Durkheim (1858 - 1917), a French sociologist (Coakley & Dunning, 2004). He used biological, organic analogies to explain society as a whole. To maintain the whole organism/system (i.e. society) it is vital that all its parts work smoothly together. These maintaining parts can also be named as basic community needs or according to Haralambaros and Holborn (2000)

    • Word count: 1915
  3. Strain TheoryOutline and assess the view that deviance is the result of strain in society (60)

    Unlike Durkheim, Merton does not associate anomie with sudden change, but with strains built into a social system that remain constant. To Merton, anomie is a persistent structural strain, arguing that there are two elements of social and cultural structure which anomie has an influence on. The first structure is culturally assigned goals and aspirations. These are the things that all individuals are believed to want and expect out of life, such as success, money, material goods etc. The second aspect of the social structure defines the acceptable mode for achieving the goals and aspirations set by society.

    • Word count: 1027
  4. To what extent do sociologists agree that different levels of educational attainment are affected by genetics?

    nurture" debate continues. Many definitions have been given to explain the nature of intelligence. A simple one is "the ability to perceive and solve problems" - the nature of the problems will however depend on the society in which they exist. A lot of research has been aimed at establishing whether, and to what extent, intelligence is inherited. Conclusions have ranged from that of Watson (1931) who stated "There is no such thing as an inheritance of capacity, talent, temperament, mental constitution and characteristics", and that of Floud, Halsey and Martin (1956), who argued "it is well known that intelligence is largely an acquired characteristic", to that of Jensen (1969)

    • Word count: 2043
  5. Assess the view that, despite recent changes in Family life, "the conventional nuclear family remains the norm"

    Murdock says that the functions (purposes) of a family is sexual, educational (socialisation), reproductive and economic. T. Parsons (1955) founded the 'Warm Bath' theory, this is describing how the women's role is to stabilize the males personality, by separating the two worlds of work and family, by giving him affection and attention, hence the name 'Warm Bath.' This was seen as the natural 'division of labour,' where men looked after the women, that they were the main breadwinners. It can also describe where the male and the female roles were situated, the public domain for men is work (public), and the public domain for women is family (private).

    • Word count: 1016
  6. Consider the passage from page 24 ('England declared war') to page 26 ('visit his family'). What aspects of this passage are of interest, considering the novel as a whole?

    Later in the novel, Guy psychologically excludes himself from the rest of his regiment by saying 'It looks as though I am going to be an extra mouth', implying that he is not useful to society at the time, giving his life little purpose. By describing Guy's situation, Waugh is questioning whether society fulfils its purpose of making people feel included and useful. Guy's age acts as a barrier between him and the younger soldiers who call him 'Uncle', emphasised when 'He was excused from parades and Physical Training' because of his injury.

    • Word count: 1007
  7. examine functionalists and marxisms view on family

    The community was shared and your family was the society. The industrial revolution is when there was a major shift in the economy and work was based on manual labour. The economy grew dramatically and private property distributed amongst the vast of society instead of just the rich. Private property became more singularly owed instead of collectively within a community. As already stated the main difference between beliefs of Marxists and functionalists is that Marxists are communist and functionalists are capitalists. Marxists are against capitalism have great criticisms against it, functionalists accept the capitalist society and see it as the 'norm.'

    • Word count: 704
  8. "Social class is not the only factor in voting behaviour but it remains the most significant."

    Ivor Crewe argues in favour of social class being the most important factor of voting. However there are more effecting factors to voting. Embourgeoisement was a term coined to explain why some of the working class where voting for the Conservative party, this was down to the fact that their living standards where improving and they began to own their own houses, as opposed the working class renting their homes. So some of the working class thought of them selves as middle class, because of their home ownership.

    • Word count: 530
  9. "Examine the role of the medical society in the medical profession."

    Although many things support the way society views doctors it is not to say that they always live up to their status. Some recent things that have been pointed out by the media are such things as Harold Shipman who was a mass murderer, when people watch the news and/or read newspapers and see headlines like these it makes them think that doctors are not worthy of their status, even though we would not like to admit it we tend to actually believe what people say when it comes to finding out that someone of great power has abused their power and killed many innocent people.

    • Word count: 872
  10. How did China change after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976? What were the consequences of this change?

    Mao's government promised a lot of change and social re-organization to China, and indeed, in one sense, it could be seen to deliver on that promise. But the method by which it was done- through the absolute enforcement of ideology and the rejection of all other views and ideas2- promised great upheaval and confusion in society. Initially, the upheaval could be seen to be social upheaval; but later, as the cultural implications set in of the new society, the effects of a new social order would come to have many effects that were not so tangible.

    • Word count: 1667
  11. Choose TWO STORIES that show divisions or conflicts within communities - 'The train from Rhodesia' and 'Leela's Friend'.

    The train is personified by using verbs such as 'creaking, jerking, jostling, gasping' and saying it has 'a dwindling body behind it'. This emphasizes the classes divisions between the rich passengers on the train and the poor sellers in the station. The poverty of black people seems to be the reason for division. The 'creases' in stationmaster's uniform and his 'barefoot children' all give the impression of scarcity in the people inside the station. However, the girl on the train was 'throwing' a 'hard kind' chocolate to the dogs.

    • Word count: 810
  12. to be different is to be condemned by society.

    Just because a person has different opinions than those of the majority he is sometimes treated disrespectfully and is not given credit for having his personal ideas. A person who stands apart from the majority and is part of the minority is sometimes oppressed and demoralized. For example, an atheist living in a highly religious area might be damned by the community or be physically or mentally tortured to accept their faith. Linguistic and cultural minorities sometimes are also discriminated.

    • Word count: 848
  13. Evaluate 2 social theories of crime

    The label of a science suggested that crime and its causes could be measured, determined and therefore a cure could be discovered. The Functionalist sociologist that will be looked at is Emile Durkheim, he was a French sociologist. The Marxist sociologist is Karl Marx, he was a German sociologist. A Functionalist study of society would look at Institutional arrangements and relationships and these would form the building blocks of society. The way in which institutions relate to each other determines the structure and basic character of any society.

    • Word count: 1549
  14. Social and action theories

    Functionalism A Functionalist study of society would look at Institutional arrangements and relationships and these would form the building blocks of society. The way in which institutions relate to each other determines the structure and basic character of any society. People are born into an existing system of institutional arrangements. These institutions are often compared to the workings of a human body. When all institutions work together there is a healthy society likewise when all the organs in the human body are working well then you have a healthy body.

    • Word count: 2179
  15. From your viewing of Seven Up and Twenty Eight Up, reflect on the extent to which the background of the children was a major influence on the adults that they became,

    It will define both historic and contemporary class structures and relate it to individual scenarios observed and discussed in the video series Seven Up. More specifically the occupational status is discussed in terms of social class and compared to the occupations of that of some of the participants of the series. According to the historical Marxist theory (Sargent, 1997; Abercrombie, 1984; Krieken, 2000), the main difference in class division under capitalism was between the owners of production (bourgeoisie or capitalist class), and those who sold their labour (proletariat or working class).

    • Word count: 1940
  16. Assess the usefulness of participant observation in sociological research

    The best solution is for the observer to get involved with the activities of the group being studied. The observer thus becomes a participant observer. This method is associated with social anthropology and symbolic interactions. It can be used with people who still want to study the large-scale issues that are seen to determine social reality and by that phenomenology's that are simply interested in meaning. An example of participant observation is a study by James Patrick on a particular gang group.

    • Word count: 1003
  17. Women have been dealing with what we call today as 'gender issues' (to be politically correct) since the beginning of time. Most other people refer to it as chauvinism or discrimination. This thing

    Women were there only to cook and to bare the children of the tribe. But why has society chosen to put these images out there for us to believe. Do we have any proof that their woman were dragged around by the hair, or is it a simple rhetoric devise to play in the mind of our subconscious thinking to lead us to believe that men have and always have been more superior than women. As the ages have passed not much has changed for women.

    • Word count: 2249
  18. People might be equal in the sight of God but they are far from equal in society (Haralambos, pg 69, 1986)

    This class struggle, argues Marx, constrains and shapes the lives of all individuals in a society. (Haralambos & Holburn, pg 35, 1995). This process places individuals into various class positions. Marx believed that all individuals have a class position regardless of whether those individuals are consciously aware of that class position. Class is therefore to be understood as a social structure greater than structures of gender or ethnicity. Giddens states that most of Marx's works were concerned with stratification, and above all, with social class (Giddens, pg 244, 1997) Marx's theory looks at two main classes in capitalist society, the bourgeoisie (those who own means of production)

    • Word count: 1933
  19. All societies and cultures place a great emphasis on the differences between males and females

    Thus the existence of gender specific capacities does not predict how or to what extent they will be used for purposes of adaptation. (Nadelson, pg 4, 1991) Field work carried out by anthropologists within non Western societies provide support for this point, in the East African highlands, where ploughs and animals are absent, the heavy work of cultivation is done largely by women. The same women carry 50-pound loads on their heads over considerable distances, in addition to bearing and raising children and managing their homes.

    • Word count: 2156
  20. Assessment of Mill's 'Harm Principle'

    Once they have done so, the new morality must then be protected in law. How is the law-maker to ascertain the public morality? A simple majority in favour of a moral rule is not enough for it to count as part of the shared moral code. On the other hand it is not necessary to have unanimity. Devlin's notion is that the overwhelming majority of ordinary citizens know what the shared moral code of their society is. Although society has rights, so does the individual. A balance must therefore be struck. No society can do without intolerance, indignation and disgust, but before a society puts a practice beyond the limits of tolerance there must be a deliberate judgement that the practice is so abominable that its mere presence is an offence.

    • Word count: 1183
  21. Sociology coursework

    * I would like to find out the reason why Bangladeshi parents hold so tightly onto stereotypical norms and values. * I would like to find out the attitudes towards difference in academic expectations between boys and girls. * I would like to find out why there is a distinct borderline for parents when it comes to expectations in education between bays and girls. * I would like to find out that if living in a country where academic expectation are equal for male and females, why do they differ in Bangladeshi families.

    • Word count: 796
  22. Similarities between the cultures of 19th C Japan and 21st C Pakistan

    She has been raised alone in these mountains and is only a poor, ignorant girl," said her father. The sentence is an excellent example of not only how women were treated throughout Japanese society at the time, but how women are being treated in present day Pakistan. Green Willow is considered inferior to others around her, and the father reacts in a manner that can best be described as embarrassment. This attitude is paralleled in Pakistani society, where women are often treated as second class citizens. It is truly believed by most in society that women do not deserve the same rights as men, which is the tragedy of the situation.

    • Word count: 1257
  23. Outline some of the Background to the present role of home care workers within community care policy and explain why this role is important within the policy

    Foucault noted that a black man, because of the colour of his skin is often seen as a deviant, likewise, a teenager, because of their age as rebellious. These views then give society power in naming and categorising these people because of how they look, and not who they are. (Reader, Pini, p. 161) I will use myself as an example; I am white, I have blue eyes, I am Scottish, I am female. These are predestined features, which determine who I am, but I have power to change many features relating to my body, like the colour of my

    • Word count: 2023
  24. Digital Fortress by Dan Brown

    Opposing to his values is the computer programming genius Ensei Tankado. He died in the fight for everyone's privacy rights. Their different perspectives caused the conflict of the story. Plot Orientation: When the NSA's invincible code-breaking machine, TRANSLTR, encounters a mysterious code it cannot break, the agency calls in Susan. What she uncovers is that the NSA is being held hostage. Tankado had threatened to make the code available for public use if the NSA didn't make TRANSLTR's existence known to the general public. A deadly treat that will cripple the nation's security, this code has to be broken.

    • Word count: 1435
  25. Assess the view that the modern family is symmetrical

    However, the number of women in paid employment is very dependant on her personal circumstances, with the number of married or cohabiting women in paid employment outweighing the number of lone mothers in paid employment. Possible explanations for this include the financial disincentive of benefits, rising housing costs and the lack of affordable childcare, and the fact that while cohabiting or married mothers have to work to help towards the financial responsibilities faced by the family, many lone mothers face continuing poverty whether they are engaged in paid employment or relying on state benefits (Family Policy Studies Centre).

    • Word count: 2220

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