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Ancient American civilizations

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Introduction

Ancient American civilizations Cultural development can be separated into three categories of increasing intellect and complexity. Tribal is the lowest form of civilization, Chiefdom the intermediate level, and finally the state level, which represents the highest form of civilization in Ancient America. The tribal band represented the basic primitive level of civilization. In Ancient America, the tribal level was a loose association of bands or villages. The ties between these villages represented a "tribe." Many of these early groups sustained life in difficult environments, in which climate extremes were usually always present. These climate conditions such as extreme heat, wetlands, and thick woods greatly obstructed the development of the tribal civilization. Tribal civilization relied on fishing, collecting, and hunting. Tribal bands were typically nomadic, moving around the various terrains in a given area. ...read more.

Middle

The populations were dense and had lost the tribal form of self-government. The chiefdom civilization now used a board of members, in which a chief and his group of secondary chiefs ruled the area. In Ancient America, ranking in the Chiefdom civilization was an essential aspect of organization. Members of the villages were ranked according to their blood relation of the highest chief. The dominant chief required donations and payments, in which he usually redistributed to officials and warriors. By doing so, he gained power and created a substantial following. In Ancient America, many chiefdoms existed in the surrounding Caribbean area (Panama, Costa Rica, Puerto Rica, Jamaica, etc) and the Cauca Valley of Columbia. The Chibcha (Muisca) chiefdom, in eastern Columbia, used terracing and planting beds (moisture control) ...read more.

Conclusion

Specialization of different social classes began to occur, including priesthood (religious activities), a warrior class, and a bureaucracy (in charge of state management). Paramount chiefs and the elite became a weak factor in the state civilizations as the entire social civilization played a distinct role in running the territory. The state had an emperor or king which the commoners supported and held him to be a higher power. To support the state level structure, intensive farming techniques were used including terracing, irrigation, and high yields. The state also differed from the chiefdom in that it had increased regional trade, architectural monuments, a developing merchant class, and an accurate city outlook. The three divisions of Ancient American civilization have their apparent distinctions, but also have some distinct similarities. Each level builds off the previous in a progressive pattern, as seen in all stages of cultural development, whether comparing it to Ancient America or the 20th century. ...read more.

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