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Assess the link between labelling and social differences in education.

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20 mark question Labelling is a theory on how the teachers judge the student into fitting with the ideal pupil, middle class pupils tend to do a lot better than working class in terms of educational achievement this happens because Pupils from middle class backgrounds tend to pass more exams, stay on at school for longer and are five times more likely to go to university ,also working class tend to be negatively labelled such as non academic and difficult (Becker). This gap in achievement widens with age as right from nursery school to university, processes like labelling or the self fulfilling prophecy take place which insure that the working class are always at a disadvantage (Marxist). In addition the interactionist view on streaming and social difference are linked because they argue that banding students into high and lower sets can create labels to be formed for example high set students will get more positive labels to ensure them that they can pass whereas lower sets will get less positive labels because of the teachers low expectation of them as being ''a waste of time, Thick'' etc. ...read more.


will always be a significant difference in educational achievement, with middle class children exceeding working class children with regard to educational achievement. Interactionist have taken this approach further, they have examined the way in which labeling is linked to other processes within schools that result in class differences in achievement, these processes include the self-fulfilling prophecy and the polarization into anti and pro-school pupil subcultures as stated by Item A. The self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having being made, which leads to a student?s underachievement. basically teachers that have low expectations of certain children and communicate these expectations in their interaction, these children may develop a negative self-concept. They may come to see themselves as failures and give up trying, thereby fulfilling their original prophecy and leads to one?s underachievement. Studies show that self-fulfilling prophecy is particularly less likely to occur when children are streamed. Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups or classes called 'set'. Each ability group is taught differently in terms of knowledge for instance higher sets will get high brow knowledge whereas lower sets have more simplistic low brow knowledge. ...read more.


study displays the concepts of differentiation and polarization to explain how pupil subcultures develop, He states that differentiation is the process of teachers who categories pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and behavior. Differentiation is also a form of streaming, since it categorizes pupils into separate classes like Polarisation, on the other hand it's a process in which students move towards one of the two opposite poles? of school e.g. pro or anti school subculture. All in all social class differences aren't mainly caused by labelling but rather external factors that can influence difference in educational achievement such as material and cultural deprivation, these are important factors to consider because they can help understand external reasons for this happening not just internal reason within schools like labelling. one may argue that other factors can also be a culprit for social differences in educational achievement such as streaming, polarization and the image of ideal pupil, these external and internal factors could explain why social differences between the two classes in school determine their successes and failure. So in the end sociologist will think that labelling isn't the sole reason for the differences but rather one of the many influencing social classes. ...read more.

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