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Chose one area that has been studied in this module (for example age, gender, race, language, disability, sexuality), and critically assess the extent to which the policy and practice within criminal justice system accommodates diversity.

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North East Wales Institute/ Athrofa Gogledd Ddwyrain Cymru School of Business and Social Sciences/ Ysgol Fusnes a Gwyddorau Cymdeithasol ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION SHEET / TAFLEN GYFLWYNO ASEINIADAU Student number Rhif myfyriwr/wraig S0200795 Unit/module name Enw'r uned/modiwl Social Difference and Inequality Name of tutor Enw'r tiwtor Assignment due date Dyddiad y dylai'r aseiniad fod i mewn 28/05/2004 Submission date Dyddiad cyflwyno 28/05/2004 Assignment title Teitl yr aseiniad Social Difference and Inequality essay For group projects - name of other students in group Ar gyfer projectau grwp - enwau'r myfyrwyr eraill yn y grwp Word Count 4505 Declaration: This assignment is the product of my own work and I am aware of and agree to abide by the University's regulations concerning plagiarism. (please delete as appropriate) Yes If you are a disabled student, do you have a Learning Contract? (please delete as appropriate) Yes / No Date28/05/2004 Please indicate (?) if you would like your feedback in Welsh. ( if this box is not ticked your feedback will automatically be in English) Yes, I would like my feedback in Welsh Chose one area that has been studied in this module (for example age, gender, race, language, disability, sexuality), and critically assess the extent to which the policy and practice within criminal justice system accommodates diversity. This essay is to explore the increasing number of migrants and asylum seekers as clients within the criminal justice system. Policy and practice regarding this particular area of clientele will be identified, examined and assessed. In recent decades, most EU member States have experienced a marked increase in the number of third country nationals (TCNs) residing on their territory. Partly for political and humanitarian reasons, partly as a result of differing economic situations as well as the freedom of movement entailed by growing economic integration in Europe, an increasing number of people have settled with varying degrees of permanence in countries other than their countries of origin. ...read more.


It can be argued, however, that it is correct practice that those who immediately enter a country cannot immediately access the full range of social benefits and public services to which long term residents have contributed. Asylum seekers experience 'enforced leisure' (or idleness), as a result of employment restrictions whilst their claim is being determined. This can lead to associated health problems and low self-esteem. It is policy in some areas of Britain issue 'passport to leisure' cards (additional support with sportswear and equipment was said to be available from faith groups). However, more formal support and funding structures would enable other agencies to provide similar services to asylum seekers. Johnson notes that 'Mobility upon receipt of a decision (and for those leaving NASS accommodation) interrupts care and may have an adverse impact on dependants.' This suggests a need for some sort of an 'exit strategy' to ensure a seamless transition and continuing care for asylum seekers when they receive a decision on their claim. This should apply equally to those granted refugee status, those given leave to remain, and those who receive a negative decision. It is the opinion of this essay, however, that there has not been enough consideration as to what benefits and services should be readily available. Or, more importantly perhaps, what benefits and services should be made available over time. Spencer argues that '...it is in the interests of society that they have access, because access promotes self sufficiency and social inclusion...' There must be compromise between exclusion of migrants from public services (to limit public expenditure, deter welfare tourists and perhaps appease public opinion) and allowing access to services that promote inclusion. The barrier of discrimination can be on grounds of race and, increasingly, Spencer argues, of religion. Discrimination can be overt, but more often unintended and systemic in the way services are organised to meet the needs of the majority. ...read more.


The mandate of the Commission for Racial Equality is, unusually, not just to promote race equality but also to promote good race relations. It is the opinion of this essay that equality and good relations are conjoined. In social terms, it is impossible to achieve one without the other. Equality cannot be achieved, it might be suggested, without positive public attitudes of mutual respect; Johnson notes that '...we cannot achieve good relations if inequality breeds resentment and alienation.' It is evident. Therefore, that there is a need for initiatives to promote both, side by side. The promotion of understanding and acceptance of human rights standards is an issue that seems to be ignored. Human rights, as a common value, that can unite communities. Johnson says of the code of human rights- 'Each of our nations is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights which sets down minimum standards not only on how the state treats us, but an ethical code for how we treat each other: teaching respect for privacy, equality, and family life; challenging intolerance and degrading treatment. We do not, in our diversity, need to agree on everything - there was huge diversity of values in Europe before post war migration added to that cultural mix. But we need a common code which over rides unacceptable extremes. The international human rights standards provide that.' In order to enforce this ideas surrounding human rights, the mobilisation of 'civil society partners' has been suggested. This would enable the sharing responsibility between with migrants and the state, for delivery on this agenda. Johnson suggests that- 'Employers, trades unions, voluntary organisations, faith groups, members of the public are already the key players in those every day inter-actions which determine the inclusion or exclusion of migrants.' However, it is often found that these factions are under-resourced, under-utilised, and/or unrecognised as partners in the attempt to achieve the goals set; the social inclusion of migrants. These goals should, it might be suggested, be seen in this way as the responsibility of all concerned. ...read more.

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