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culture and socialization

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I. Nature vs Nurture * Nature - The environment you are born in * Nurture - What you take in?(nutrition) II. "Sociological Imagination" (C. Wright Mills 1959) -An awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society (Private troubles ? public issues e.g. poverty; unemployment; "unsuccessful" students ) -Do not take things for granted! (i.e. don't ever believe that what you see at present is the natural or the only way of behaving or organizing social relationships.) Sociological Focuses: * the recurring patterns in people's attitudes and action * how such patterns are formed culturally, socially, economically and politically * how such patterns vary across time, societies, & social groups (e.g. classes) * how such patterns generate social inequalities (e.g. ...read more.


* Subculture - a group that shares in the overall culture of the society but also has its own distinctive values, norms & lifestyle; * Counter-culture - a subculture whose values & norms are fundamentally at odds with the *dominant culture IV. Socialization Socialization - the process by which people learn the culture of their society and thereby acquire personality Internalization - the unconscious process of making conformity to cultural norms a part of one's personality Reinforcement -sanction applied to encourage people to behave in certain ways and discourage them from behaving in some other ways -positive or negative (e.g. reward or punishment) -formal or informal (formal - backed up by institutional forces e.g. black record) V. Society: Different Levels of Social Relationships * Social Interaction (micro-level, situation-specific moments of social encounter among individuals, as governed by the specific norms and values defining the roles, the statuses, and the situation etc. ...read more.


Role Conflict: Role Conflict: a situation in which two or more of a person's roles have contradictory requirements. (The fact that a person may have several different statuses, each with a number of roles attached, can often cause difficulty and confusion in social relationships.) Institution (a) Institutions tend to be resistant to change. (b) Institutions tend to be interdependent, and change together. Example: Family as a Social Institution (a) norms and values defining roles (e.g. parenting - negligence by parents will constitute child abuse liable to legal punishment) (b) norms and values organizing the family (e.g. blood ties, marriage, heterosexuality, age) (c) the constraining power of the family institution (the rights and duties among legal family members vs. non-family members e.g. rights to inheritance, co-residence in public housing, custody, adoption of children) (d) Inter-relationship between family and welfare, between family & economy ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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