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Division of Labour

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Introduction

"DIVISION OF LABOR." Moral consensus is very important to the perpetuation of social order. Moral rules develop in a society and are integrally bound up with the conditions of social life existing in that specific time & place. In modern society, there is an apparent moral ambiguity concerning the relationship of the individual & society. There are strong trends that emphasize the development of individualism, and there are equally strong trends which oppose this on the grounds of moral damage to the society. The idea of individualism is clearly associated with the growth of the division of labour. This is not wholly a modern phenomenon but in the more traditional sorts of societies , its is rudimentary and usually confined to sexual division of labour. Modern industrial production has produced a high division of labour. This is so in the economic sphere, in govt.. in law, in the sciences, in the arts and in short in all aspects of social life. The increase in social differentiation, which has developed from traditional to modern forms of society, can be compared to certain biological phenomena. In the evolutionary scale, the first organisms to appear are simple in structure, giving way to organisms with higher specialization in internal functions. ...read more.

Middle

The primary function of punishment therefore is to protect and reaffirm the conscience collective in the face of acts, which question its sanctity. Durkheim here differentiates between mechanical & organic solidarity (2 types of the conscience collective). Societies in which the principle bonds of cohesion are based upon mechanical solidarity, have a segmental structure. They are made up of individual clans complete in themselves, which only unite to form a society due to cultural unity, i.e. common beliefs and ethics. Anyone part of the society can break up without too much loss to the others, like simple biological organisms splitting up to form two. In such societies, there are strongly formed sets of sentiments and therefore very little individualism. Each individual is a microcosm of the whole. In this situation, property is normally communal since private property makes for individualism. The progressive replacement of repressive by restitutive laws is a historical trend, which is co-related with the development of society. The more the development, the more the proportion of restitutive laws. Repressive Repressive & Restitutive Restitutive Primitive society Modern society The fundamental element found in repressive law i.e. the concept of expiation (atonement) ...read more.

Conclusion

Anomie is also a pathological condition. There is a built-in potential in modern society towards organic solidarity where each separate and specialized institution is dependant upon the other and in turn feeds the social structure. If the component parts of society can be induced to feel 'a lively sentiment of their mutual dependence,' then many of the conflicts & crises can be swept aside. A prime task for contemporary society is, therefore, the construction of a new civic morality which will be spread efficiently by a state education system. Durkheim identifies chaotic economic competition as the primary cause of conflict and class struggle. He advocates regulation of the economy and of the worker-employer relationship. He even suggests guild s to mediate between workers, employers and the state. He also argues against the 1st division of labour where inequality of opportunity denies individuals access to positions to suit their talents. Durkheim speaks of internal differences and external differences. He believes that the latter should be removed so that people find jobs that are in keeping with their abilities (meritocracy). But above all is the idea that the individual is subordinate to society and it is this submission to society which creates his liberation from conflict and crisis. What is good for social integration is god for the individual. ...read more.

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