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Explain briefly and give two example of what is meant by positive discrimination.

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A2 Sociology Qa. Explain briefly and give two example of what is meant by positive discrimination. A campaign began in California to outlaw positive discrimination, in Britain men are not doing as well as they use to. Men still earn more than women but the gap is narrowing and in education girls are overtaking boys. Qb. What do sociologist mean by an 'underclass'. The upper, middle and working class have always been identified into sociology but a further class is increasingly identified which is the underclass sociologists like Charles Murray argue that the underclass suffer from cycle of poverty. They enter the cycle of poverty; they live in the poorest condition and lowest status in every social sphere. In the labour market the underclass are offered the lowest pay, the worst working condition and the lowest degree of security e.g. black people are over represented in the underclass because of the nature of employment, they are found in jobs like transports (bus/tube drivers), the women as low status nurse. ...read more.


Even though women are doing much better, so concerns are still been discussed according to Marxist women are seen as reserved army of labour. Women have to do the least desirable jobs for the lowest pay, and women are more likely to be part-time jobs because they rely on their husband's wages as main breadwinner. An American sociologist, Theodore Caplow argues that there are large employable women and as a result to this, employers have no reason to attract female labourers with high wages, career opportunities and improved working condition. Girls are still outperforming boys in GCSE and A-Levels but when they go off to university, boys do better than girls and the pay gap between men and women is still visible. So although women are doing better than the early centuries, men are still getting 19% more than women in employment. Qd. Outline and critically assess two sociological explanations of economic differences between men and women. ...read more.


The workforce is more or less still overpowered by men. When women go into employment, they face a number of disadvantages in paid work. They are likely to be in part-time jobs and tend to do particular jobs, mainly low status. Although radical feminist argues that patriarchy is the problem. They argue that men exploit women because they undertake free labour for men by carrying out childcare and housework. They also wish to see patriarchy replaced by matriarchy. According to Marxist feminist capitalism also has something to do with women's oppression. Capitalist society needs to have a reserved army of labour, which are over represented by women. Marxist feminist would argue that a capitalist society like Britain will benefit from a reserved army of labour because of their low pay employment and the increase in single parent families has something to do with the economic differences between men and women, single parent families are headed by women, who do part times jobs are poorly paid and they have to provide for the household. This leads to women been in the cycle of poverty. Modupe Aluko 30/04/2007 Sociology 1 ...read more.

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