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Haralambos & Holborn (2004, ), state that the differences between men and women are sometimes seen as the basis for inequality between them as the use of biological, socialization, and learning explanations take centre stage

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Haralambos & Holborn (2004), state that the differences between men and women are sometimes seen as the basis for inequality between them as the use of biological, socialisation, and learning explanations take centre stage. Biologically based explanations of the behaviour of men and women now include physical appearances between men and women, the allocation of roles socially, hormones, brains, and sexual reproductive organs differences. George Peter Murdock states that the biological differences between male and female is based on the sexual division of labour in the society (Murdock, 1949), Haralambos & Holborn (2004). Here men are seen as someone who is able to do work that is difficult and in need for great physical strength which women do not possess and can be seen as a disadvantage but also women on the other hand seem to be having an advantage over men in the roles that they do such the being pregnant, taking care of the family, nursing as well as doing small menial tasks such as house hold chores. Abbott, Wallace & Tyler (2005) state that women have a unique outlook on the social world, rooted in the 'special' nature of their experiences of the body, and in particularly motherhood, which are different from those of men. ...read more.


Andersen (1997, 19), gives a scenario where by when one wants to buy a gender neutral toy...., it is hard as the aisles in toy stores are highly stereotyped by concepts of what boys and girls do and like. This is the way in which the society views a child when he/she is growing up. It is not proper for a boy to be seen playing with dolls and wearing colours that are deemed to be that of girls such as pink. He is taught to be strong when growing up and not to cry. Haralambos & Holborn (2004: 100), state that Oakley (1974) outlined how socialisation in modern industrial societies shapes the behaviour of boys and girls from an early age. Basing her work on the findings of Ruth Hartley, Oakley discusses four main in which socialisation into gender roles takes place and these are manipulation, canalisation, verbal appellation and different activities. * By manipulation mothers tend to pay more attention to girls' hair and to dress them in feminine clothes. * Canalisation is the direction of boys and girls towards different objects. In the above example in shops the way toys are arranged is done in a way that appeal to buyers to know which ones to buy for boys and girls. ...read more.


Systemic forces that tend to reinforce and perpetuate the system should be identified and explicitly tackled, (Villarreal & du Guerny, 2000). The differences in ways that males and females are treated in the society stems from our learning the ways that the society deems to fit for us. The difference between the biological and socialisation and learning explanations have been a sticking point as there have been differences as to how to tackle each explanation. The biological explanation sought to show that sex and gender are things which we are born with yet the socialisation and learning experiences teach us that in what ever we do the society and the family play a huge role in helping to shape an individual. Socialisation helps us to learn what is expected of us and how to show these characteristics later in life. Reference List Abbott, P., Wallace, C., & Tyler, M. (2005). Introduction to Sociology: Feminist perspectives. London: Routeledge. Andersen, M.L. (1997). Thinking about women sociological perspectives on sex and gender. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Haralambos, M. and Holborn, M. (2004) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. 6th Edition. London: Collins Villarreal, M. & du Guerny, J. (2000). Gender and development: Why do we still have problems in population programmes after all these years? Population Programme Service (SDWP) FAO Women and Population Division. http://www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/WPan0047.htm Download date 20/08/2007 1 ...read more.

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