• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9

How is the contrast between tradition and modernisation presented in these chapters and how important are the concepts to the novel so far (1-18)?

Extracts from this document...


Q. How is the contrast between tradition and modernisation presented in these chapters and how important are the concepts to the novel so far (1-18)? Howards End is Forster's symbolic exploration of social, economic, and philosophical forces that were currently at work in England during the early twentieth century. Fascinated by the changes sweeping England at the time the novel was written in 1910, Forster set out to voice his opinions on the topics of both modernisation and tradition and this is clear when analytically exploring Howards End in great detail. Forster saw the eventual dominance of the commercial and financial class, and he saw with disturbing accuracy what this dominance would do to the world. It appears at various times within the book that Forster is directly addressing the question put forward by critic Lionel Trilling of "Who shall inherit England?" meaning which class of people will define the nation, and in order to answer this Forster explores three different families each representing a different social class and opinion on modernisation and tradition: the literary, cultural Schlegel family, who represent the idealistic and intellectual aspect of the upper class; the materialistic pragmatic Wilcox family, who represent the "solid" English work ethic; and the impoverished Bast family, lead by a lower-middle-class insurance clerk who desperately hopes books will save him from the social and economic abyss. ...read more.


She was the last of the Howards; "things went on until there were no men." Ruth is the last survivor of a family that has lived on the land in one house for centuries which makes clear the pity and anger she feels when Margaret tells her that they are to loose Wickham place, the home that both Tibby and Helen were born in. "Not the house you were born in. You'll never find that again. Poor, poor girls. Howards end was almost pulled down once. It would've killed me." Mrs. Wilcox lives with and loves the Wilcoxes, yet she retains her connection to the past and to the earth, a connection that is essential to the inner life and outer life. Ruth is the only member of the Wilcox family who is traditional in her ways and sees a home as more than a property or financial gain. Mrs. Wilcox's marriage to Henry is an emblem of the traditional co-existence of the two kinds of life, a co-existence which seems to be coming to an end. The death of Mrs. Wilcox brings a literal end to the Howard Family; the question is whether the disposition of her house will bring the end of what she stands for. ...read more.


Wilcox following both her traditions and her role as spiritual heir. But Margaret seems to realize that the outer life of the Wilcoxes has become so powerful and expansive that it cannot exist peacefully beside the life of personal relations and personal emotional truth which the Schlegels girls hold so dear. She knows Wilcoxes are changing the world but wants Mr. Wilcox to see that he has an inner life. This is what Margaret tries to do in accepting Henrys proposal; she tries to merge the inner and outer lives. In conclusion, modernisation and tradition are two of the most important themes within the novel, it seems that they were apparent in the mind of Forster when he wrote the novel and he used motorcars, families and property in order to show London, and England in general and the change that it has and will endure. The novel does seem to be slightly prophetic similarly to George Orwell's 1984 in predicting the future in a very precise manor. Forster appears to have seen the eventual dominance of the commercial and financial classes, and he saw with disturbing accuracy what this dominance would do not only to England but also to the world and how it would in fact be the Wilcoxes of the world that "shall inherit the England". ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man brilliantly brings together the themes of identity and responsibility through ...

    The veteran is another character that society portrayed as being blind, although this time he is blind to reality; he is mentally ill. Ironically, he was the only person in the whole novel that spoke the truth about the white man's need to "support" the black man.

  2. Analyze how Far From Heaven employ mechanisms of cinematic identification.

    She is objectified and she becomes the male gaze, her purpose is then to satisfy male viewers. Most films, like Far From Heaven reinforce patriarchy and conveys a very narrow range of representations. Cathy longs for something other than her 'perfect' family, she is afraid and ashamed to express it,

  1. Gender-issues - which way forward

    can almost invariably claim to be 'more equal than others' - you're welcome to do so: yet don't delude yourself into thinking that it is in any way a genuine equality. "There's always a choice", says the wyrd, "yet there's also, always, a twist...": do what you will, but be very sure that you will it!

  2. "The novel is important to the history of women's search for a public voice" ...

    They knew about increasing literature availability and targeted the new audience. Defoe, a well-travelled journalist, was an ideal candidate to write as a novelist. The 18th century novels narrative structure consisted of a chain of events, actions and descriptions moved the plot forward, "the first step she put me upon

  1. Modernity - a philosophical disposition

    Durkheim referred to this specialized division of labor as 'organic'. Durkheim' theory assumes that the transition from a mechanical division of labor to an organic division of labor will be a gradual evolution and that group solidarity will continue through reason not conformity.

  2. Compare and contrast the portrayal of Indian marriages in the stories 'The Old Woman' ...

    uncle's family, they could not get back at the shrewd uncle for not giving all of the promised dowry...Because they couldn't take it out on their earning son, their minds stayed poisoned against his wife." Here we see that although it was the uncle's fault, who had not paid the

  1. Max Weber: Basic Terms (The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology)

    People now are born into a capitalistic economy which presents itself to them as the unalterable order of things in which they must live. In so far as a person born now is involved in the system of market relationships, he must conform to capitalistic rules of action.

  2. Compare the ways in which crime is presented in Moll Flanders and Roxana?Assess how ...

    However Moll and Roxana do not have these constraints. It could be inferred Defoe aims to make his two protagonists heroic figures as they manage to succeed against the odds, they're renegades that reject the norms and values of society and do not conform with stereotypical female roles, such as

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work