• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Identify the Biological and Psychological explanations on crime (9)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Identify the Biological and Psychological explanations on crime (9) Biological explanations for crime see deviance in terms of the biological make-up of individuals whereas Psychological explanations maintain that the causes of deviance lie within a faulty mind. This essay will examine both theories. Causes of criminal behaviour are most prominently explained in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, which suggests that an individual's well-being is dependent on a healthy interaction amongst the Id, (Innate) Ego (Reality) and the Superego (Society). The psychoanalytic theory is the search for causes of crime within the make up of an individual. It explains that delinquency is caused by disturbances or abnormalities in an individual's emotional development from early childhood. ...read more.

Middle

Eysenck suggested that extroverts were more likely to commit crime. He believed that this was because they take more risks and take longer to learn society's norms. His theory also suggests that Extroverts are harder to condition than introverts and that introverts think more carefully about their crime, where extroverts would commit a crime spontaneously. Eysenck's theory has been criticised for being too subjective, and there is little evidence to support unstableness or emotionality and crime. Lombroso in 1876 argued that the criminal is a separate species, a species that is between modern and primitive humans. He argued that the physical shape of the head and face determined the "born criminal". These people were primitive and were unable to adapt to modern morality. ...read more.

Conclusion

William Sheldon believed that people could be classified into three body shapes, which correspond with three different personality types. 1. Endomorphic (fat and soft) tend to be sociable and relaxed. 2. Ectomorphic (thin and fragile) are introverted and restrained 3. Mesomorphic (muscular and hard) tend to be aggressive and adventurous. His theory suggested that Mesomorphs were more predisposed to crime, compared to ectomorphs or endomorphs. However, the working class tend to be stockier in build due to their manual labour jobs and he rated his subjects' body types himself, which account for weaknesses in his theory. In conclusion sociologists reject biological and psychological explanations of Crime. They have been criticised on a theoretical level. This is because they do not take into account social factors (such as poverty) and only offer a partial view on crime and deviance. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Sociological explanations of crime and deviance

    Most typical working class crimes are the result of people fighting back against their oppression and exploitation. However, Marxists are also interested in the crimes committed by powerful organisations, which tend to be ignored by other perspectives. The feminist theory generates a distinction between male and female crimes.

  2. Construction of Childhood

    Social Exclusion can be looked upon as not being wanted and being shut out within certain parts of society due to a combination of linked factors such as unemployment, poor skills/housing, low income, high crime environments and bad health. Poverty in what ever form it takes can leave children, young people and even families feeling socially excluded.

  1. Sociological Theory and Methodology - Crime and Deviance.

    * Die from an accident in childhood; * Smoke and have a parent who smokes; * Have poor nutrition; * Become a lone parent; * Have or father children younger; * Die younger. Table 8: Childhood Mortality Rates per 100,000 by Social Class (England & Wales)

  2. Critically Examine the Subcultural Approach to Crime and Deviance.

    deviance, based around the particular experience that the individual has of the social world. Merton argues that different social classes, social groups, sub-cultural groups etc. socialise their members in slightly different ways, depending upon their particular social circumstances. Whilst he does not explore this idea in any great depth, a classic distinction between working-class and middle class socialisation is made.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work