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Marx, Durkhiem and Weber had a distinctive perception of the development of society from pre-modern to modernity, the problems

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Introduction

Marx, Durkhiem and Weber had a distinctive perception of the development of society from pre-modern to modernity, the problems that would be faced and their predictions as to the future. Outline and evaluate these differing perspectives. 1,495 words. 1,521 inc. references. Sociological perspective has benefited from Marx, Durkhiem and Weber's theories, regarding human nature and the development of their societies. Each one had their differing characteristics. Marx saw class conflict and Capitalism central to his theory, whereas Durkhiem concentrated on Industrialism and the division of labour and Weber rationalization and bureaucracy. Marx had three major features in his analysis, mainly how goods and services are organized; the conflicts which arise and how it motivates change from one system to another. Although Auguste Comte established sociology and some of the original disciplines Emile Durkhiem is responsible for turning the subject into a more academic discipline. One of Durkhiems main principles was to consider 'facts as things' and his 'Organismic analogy' idea maintains that societies are like living organisms. He believed that the only way one can analyze the complete picture, is to look at all the parts and its contribution. ...read more.

Middle

The study also highlighted that one social group was more likely than another to commit suicide so the suicide rate was not a reliable answer. In his rules of sociological method he emphasized the importance of social facts by distinguishing between their causes and their social functions. He believed that "the study of any social fact's functions must be different from the study of its causes". Central to Durkhiems work is morality which also represents a 'social fact'; to understand how social order can be achieved Durkhiem assumes that morality helps to regulate societies. As morality is external to individuals as well as constraining it serves two purposes. Social order is threatened when individual's constantly demand more of everything; therefore it can never be satisfied. Morality helps to restrict these desires. He believed that social order, solidarity, and happiness could only be achieved if individuals adhered to the same shared morality, this was termed as the 'conscience collective'. In Durkhiems first work "The division of labour in society" he explains how societies have changed, from smaller communities where the population would have been largely the small illiterate type, to larger more complicated industrial types. ...read more.

Conclusion

The workers {Proletariat} do not own the means of production therefore are exploited by selling their labour power, and it is this situation which causes the most tensions and conflicts. Marx believed that the end of capitalism would come, because profit seeking would always be unstable, the division between rich and poor would produce too many tensions and a revolution would follow, which would lead to a classless society. Marx relied too much on historical events and put to much importance on external factors carving out people's destinies in a definite way; instead individuals have freedom of choice to alter their own destinies. The economic issues surrounding the superstructure of ideas and culture do not fully explain the modern cultural conflicts of gender, nationalism and ethnicity. The prediction of a more polarized division of class, central to Marx's theory has developed into a middle class emerging instead, with everyone enjoying a higher standard of living, with the acceptance of capitalism. Instead of a false ideology at work, society enjoys more civil liberties, material progress and stronger democracies than most other systems. Sociology in Focus. Paul Taylor et. al. Causeway Press Ltd. Pg 33-34. Pg 657-660. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Student number. 0465802/1 Assignment number. SOB 2019 1 ...read more.

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