• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Max Weber (1864 - 1920)

Extracts from this document...


Max Weber (1864 - 1920) conceived of modernisation as a universal process of rationalisation that occurs as humanity becomes disenchanted with religious worldviews Rationality is redefined as thinking that is ready to submit to criticism and systematic examination as an ongoing process. A broader definition is that rationality is a disposition expressed in behaviour for which good reasons can be given. http://www.stefan-szczelkun.org.uk/phd405.htm It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html According to Weber, rationalisation creates three spheres of value as the differentiated zones of Science, Art and Law.[4] This fundamental disunity of reason constitutes the danger of modernity. This danger arises not simply from the creation of separate institutional entities but through the specialisation of cognitive, normative and aesthetic knowledge that in turn permeates and fragments everyday consciousness. This all-pervasive 'rationalisation' is argued to have profoundly negative effects on socialisation, social integration and cultural production. This 'disunity of reason' implies that culture moves from a traditional base in a consensual collective endeavour to forms which are rationalised by commodification and led by individuals with interests which are separated from the purposes of the population as a whole. ...read more.


for other justifications and ended up telling them how much time it was going to save him in doing his taxes.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalization_%28psychology%29 McDonalds fast food chain started in U.S.A. in the 1950's. The hierarchy within each store usually employs a manager and a large team of staff. The business thrives on the word fast in terms of turnover this is in relation to burgers, fries, milkshakes etc. and also customers. Its success is due to its ability to offer consumers, workers, and managers four basic components these are; efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. These four basic components can be thought of as a rational system. These components introduced originally in Weber's theory of rationality are amplified by McDonalds and are a clear extension of Weber's theory. Many aspects of McDonalds mirror the concept of rationalisation using these basic components this is illustrated in the following examples. Efficiency is used to; streamline operations, have faster service, make burgers quicker. Calculability (calculating, counting, quantifying) is seen at McDonalds as to how many burgers can be sold in an hour - speed of productivity (usually high) and what are the end results (usually large). ...read more.


Again, to use an example Weber might have used, the millions of recipients of checks from the Social Security Administration know precisely when they will receive their checks and exactly how much money they will receive. Finally, bureaucracies emphasise control over people through the replacement of human with nonhuman technology. As you will recall, nonhuman technologies (machines and rules, for example) tend to control people, while human technologies (hammers and pens, for example) tend to be controlled by people. Indeed, the bureaucracy itself may be seen as one huge nonhuman technology. Its nearly automatic functioning may be seen as an effort to replace human judgement with the dictates of rules, regulations, and structures. The division of labour, which allocates to each office a limited number of well-defined tasks, controls employees. Incumbents must do those tasks, and no others, in the manner prescribed by the organisation. They may not, in most cases, devise idiosyncratic ways of doing those tasks. Furthermore, by making few, if any, judgements, people begin to resemble human robots or computers. Having reduced people to this status, it is then possible to think about actually replacing human beings with machines. This has already occurred to some extent: in many settings, computers have taken over bureaucratic tasks once performed by humans. One can imagine http://www.stedwards.edu/bss/farrall/bureau.htm ... ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Max Weber: Basic Terms (The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology)

    If you can't make this relation (for example a hindering or favorable circumstance) it's not meaningful in the sense we care about. There are 2 kinds of understanding: 1) direct observational understanding of subjective mean of a given act (eg, if i start to shout at you, you could directly observe my irrational emotional reaction by virtue of my shouting).

  2. A-Level Sociology Theory + Methods Revision.

    Experiments The Independent Variable - manipulated to estimate its effect on the Dependant Variable. If a causal relationship exists then there will be a correlation between variables. Experimental Group - Manipulate Variables.

  1. Marx, Durkhiem and Weber had a distinctive perception of the development of society from ...

    Weber's technique of interpreting the role of social actors has been criticized for exagerating the method of Verstehen to explain motives which are only interpretations that can not be proved that easily. As Weber believes so much in the individuals control over his destiny he ignores how much external forces can affect and limit behaviour.

  2. The ancient civilizations of Central and South America

    Despite his luxurious lifestyle, he did sleep on the floor like everyone else in his empire did. These emperors usually ended up having hundreds of wives, but those were for pure pleasure. His sister was usually named his chief wife, and that made sure that the next in line to

  1. Sociology Investigation

    can assure confidentiality to my respondents, because the interview would be held in a nice corner where they would feel safe, understood and private. Pilot Questionnaire I am carrying out research on what impact a label can have on students.

  2. Philosophies of Social Science.

    of the old order and sought to replace it with something better. The dignity of each individual was proclaimed as a value. Linked to various 'individualisms' were the principles of 'liberty', 'equality' and the right to personal 'autonomy' and 'self-development'.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work