• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Max Weber (1864 - 1920)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Max Weber (1864 - 1920) conceived of modernisation as a universal process of rationalisation that occurs as humanity becomes disenchanted with religious worldviews Rationality is redefined as thinking that is ready to submit to criticism and systematic examination as an ongoing process. A broader definition is that rationality is a disposition expressed in behaviour for which good reasons can be given. http://www.stefan-szczelkun.org.uk/phd405.htm It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/node1.html According to Weber, rationalisation creates three spheres of value as the differentiated zones of Science, Art and Law.[4] This fundamental disunity of reason constitutes the danger of modernity. This danger arises not simply from the creation of separate institutional entities but through the specialisation of cognitive, normative and aesthetic knowledge that in turn permeates and fragments everyday consciousness. This all-pervasive 'rationalisation' is argued to have profoundly negative effects on socialisation, social integration and cultural production. This 'disunity of reason' implies that culture moves from a traditional base in a consensual collective endeavour to forms which are rationalised by commodification and led by individuals with interests which are separated from the purposes of the population as a whole. ...read more.

Middle

for other justifications and ended up telling them how much time it was going to save him in doing his taxes.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalization_%28psychology%29 McDonalds fast food chain started in U.S.A. in the 1950's. The hierarchy within each store usually employs a manager and a large team of staff. The business thrives on the word fast in terms of turnover this is in relation to burgers, fries, milkshakes etc. and also customers. Its success is due to its ability to offer consumers, workers, and managers four basic components these are; efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. These four basic components can be thought of as a rational system. These components introduced originally in Weber's theory of rationality are amplified by McDonalds and are a clear extension of Weber's theory. Many aspects of McDonalds mirror the concept of rationalisation using these basic components this is illustrated in the following examples. Efficiency is used to; streamline operations, have faster service, make burgers quicker. Calculability (calculating, counting, quantifying) is seen at McDonalds as to how many burgers can be sold in an hour - speed of productivity (usually high) and what are the end results (usually large). ...read more.

Conclusion

Again, to use an example Weber might have used, the millions of recipients of checks from the Social Security Administration know precisely when they will receive their checks and exactly how much money they will receive. Finally, bureaucracies emphasise control over people through the replacement of human with nonhuman technology. As you will recall, nonhuman technologies (machines and rules, for example) tend to control people, while human technologies (hammers and pens, for example) tend to be controlled by people. Indeed, the bureaucracy itself may be seen as one huge nonhuman technology. Its nearly automatic functioning may be seen as an effort to replace human judgement with the dictates of rules, regulations, and structures. The division of labour, which allocates to each office a limited number of well-defined tasks, controls employees. Incumbents must do those tasks, and no others, in the manner prescribed by the organisation. They may not, in most cases, devise idiosyncratic ways of doing those tasks. Furthermore, by making few, if any, judgements, people begin to resemble human robots or computers. Having reduced people to this status, it is then possible to think about actually replacing human beings with machines. This has already occurred to some extent: in many settings, computers have taken over bureaucratic tasks once performed by humans. One can imagine http://www.stedwards.edu/bss/farrall/bureau.htm ... ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. A-Level Sociology Theory + Methods Revision.

    Comte - "Sociology is the Queen of Sciences" - Social Facts. Karl Popper = Science is different to the traditional/commonsense view Science uncovers "descriptive laws" (tell us what happened). Social laws can be broken unlike the laws of nature. SL's tell people what they can + cannot do.

  2. Sociology Investigation

    This shows that the level of maturity is important when dealing with a label; as a result of this the 15 year olds are more likely to develop a lower self esteem as they tend to take a label as a teacher telling them off, whereas the 17-19 year olds

  1. Max Weber: Basic Terms (The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology)

    Can choose b/t means, but only with relation to absolute, fixed end. Absolute values are always irrational. 3) affectional orientation. If this is uncontrolled reaction to some exceptional stimulus, it is not meaningful -- grey areas. 4) traditional orientation. If this is strict imitation, it is not meaningful -- grey areas.

  2. Philosophies of Social Science.

    Hence, there is a close link here with ... * New Economy - Classical Liberal Economics Deriving especially from Adam Smith, classical economics has stressed private property, the market and free competition as the best means of meeting the criteria of efficiency and equity. The focus is on liberty and a minimum of state regulation, allowing individuals to maximise their profits.

  1. Marx, Durkhiem and Weber had a distinctive perception of the development of society from ...

    Therefore he adopted the method of Verstehen, this is translated as 'empathic understanding' this perspective imagined how the world would have looked from the actors point of view' contrary to one's own. Weber constructed an ideal type of categories for generalization to help us make sense of our observations, not

  2. The ancient civilizations of Central and South America

    the Aztec empire could manage, as well as living in huge dwellings that would remind someone of palaces. The nobles lived almost lived in a separate world from the common people and they did not usually mingle with each other.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work