• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

Pakistani Women In a Changing Society.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

��ࡱ�>�� �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5@ ��03�bjbj�2�2 (�X�X�����������������llll8� ��lOv���������������$�R ������������� �������������������t ��x����l���0O�� �� ��t"J����� �� �����������PAKISTANI WOMEN IN A CHANGING SOCIETY PAKISTANI WOMEN IN A CHANGING SOCIETY Hamza Alavi The decade of the 1980s has truly been a decade of the women of Pakistan. A powerful women's movement made a dramatic impact on Pakistan's political scene. The concrete achievements of the women's movement in its struggle against policies of General Zia's military regime which were directed against women in the name of Islamisation, have not been inconsiderable. A number of women's organisations in the country came together in this struggle, which included the Women's Action Forum (WAF) which has been the leading and the most effective of these, the Democratic Women's Association, the Sindhiani Tehrik and the Women's Front as well as the All Pakistan Women's Association (APWA) the oldest of these which has been run by wives of senior bureaucrats and politicians and has had a reformist but rather a patronising orientation. The decade of the 1980s was also a decade of degradation of Pakistani women. The Zia regime, in its search for legitimacy, in the name of Islam, embarked upon a series of measures that were designed to undermine what little existed by way of women's legal rights, educational facilities and career opportunities - as well as the simple right for freedom of movement and protection from molestation by males. That galvanised women of the country into militant action in defence of their rights. The military regime's actions, rhetoric and propaganda created an atmosphere which encouraged bigoted and mischievous individuals to take the 'law' into their own hands and harass women under the pretext of enforcing 'Islamic' norms of dress or, indeed, for simply appearing in public. Such lawlessness was allowed to go on with impunity. Women had to defend themselves not only vis-a-vis the state but also against hostile mischief makers in the society at large. ...read more.

Middle

Clearly there are a number of issues located here which invite systematic investigation. Home-based women workers, denied the freedom of movement and relative independence of their sisters employed in salaried jobs, rationalise their own predicament in ideological terms, through a self-image of their moral superiority. Frustrated by their increasingly straitened circumstances and lack of freedom, they are easily mobilised by their men against women who go out to word. They are even made to join public demonstrations, suitably enclosed in the chaddar or burqa (the all-enveloping women's overalls that covers them from head to foot). They parrot the complaints of their men that women's employment takes jobs away from men and undercuts their salaries and that, in any case, it is quite shameless and un-Islamic for women to go about the city and work in offices with men. In their own minds as well as in the minds of the men who control their lives, their confinement to their homes offers a gain in respectability. The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. Traveling to work is itself quite a battle, given the state of public transport in Pakistan cities, especially Karachi. In order to attract women workers whom they need, many large companies maintain fleets of minibuses to pick up their women employees in the morning and take them home after work. In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. She comes home tired. Whilst her husband relaxes with a cold drink under a fan, she has to rush straight into the kitchen to prepare the family evening meal. ...read more.

Conclusion

Sadly, the eleven years of the so-called policy of 'Islamisation' under General Zia, have produced in Pakistan a culture of intolerance. This culture, above all, has persecuted women and subjected them to all kinds of humiliation and ill-treatment, not to speak of inhuman punishment under the Hudood Ordinances, as described above. The Government embarked upon a mass publicity campaign, through all the media, exhorting people to order their lives in accordance with Islam, but as interpreted by Zia and his bigoted mullahs. Far more mischievous was Zia's call to the 'people' to ensure that their 'neighbours' did likewise. This was a charter for the mischief-makers and the bigots who took upon themselves the task of chastising women, total strangers, and molesting them under that excuse. For example, Mumtaz and Shaheed quote an instance, which is by no means unique or isolated, when a woman who entered a bakery in an upper class Lahore neighbourhood, was slapped by a total stranger for not having her head covered ( Mumtaz and Shaheed, 1987: 71). A much publicised and quite horrendous case is that of a congregation leaving a mosque after Friday prayers who found a new born baby on a nearby rubbish dump. The mullah promptly concluded that it was an illegitimate child and, in accordance with the laws of Islam, as he understood them, led the congregation of the pious Muslims in stoning the child to death. Such outrageous conduct was the direct result of incitement by the propaganda of the Zia regime, which has created an atmosphere of bigotry and intolerance. It was hoped that the democratic Government of Benazir Bhutto would reverse this and, in particular, repeal the Hudood Ordinances (including the Zina Ordinance. But a year after it was put in office the Government has shown no inclination to change the laws. This is in part due to the paralysis of the Government, due to a complex set of political factors which we cannot go into here. Meanwhile the terrible legacy of the Zia regime lives on. Prospects before Pakistani women remain uncertain and threatening. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Free essay

    The changinf role of women in society

    Also Herbert Asquith made no hiding in the fact that he was against women getting the vote between 1908 and 1915 however by 1917 has views had totally changed, this was totally down to the role of women in the war.

  2. 'It is women who have to cope with problems created by men.' Discuss O'Casey's ...

    O'Casey demonstrates him as a typical member of society, however his role in the play is exaggerated to emphasise other themes in the play, like that of humour. In the playscript O'Casey creates through detailed use of description and language, the character of Boyle, who epitomises human weakness and uselessness, specifically that of men.

  1. Why is there unequal division of household labour in most of the society?

    In this sense, the proportion of man's contribution rises with the wife's employment is only due to her own household labour time falls rather than to his rise. This kind of "cutting back" or the kind of "role expansion" as mentioned above is not a real reappointment of household labour.

  2. Sociology: Arranged Marriage Coursework

    I have taken into account ethical considerations. I feel that some possible ethical issues for my research are that my questions may not be clear or hard to understand. I am to overcome these by taking into account things such as gender and age and by asking the right questions.

  1. The Hindu Woman: Life under the Laws of Manu

    How this custom developed is unknown, but by 1000 CE it was highly advocated and even justified in the Vishnu Smriti: "Now the duties of a woman (are) ... After the death of her husband, to preserve her chastity, or to ascend the pile after him" (Vishnu Smriti 25.14; Freund trans.).

  2. Discuss the significance of both defensive and fortress architecture and the privatisation of public ...

    This created a demand for suitably lavish homes, disguised as not to attract unwanted attention and make it a target for criminals. Gehry provided the solution in the form of 'stealth houses'; buildings that are camouflaged to match their run-down and dirty surroundings, "...dissimulating their luxurious qualities with proletarian or gangster fa�ades" (Davis, 1998, p238).

  1. What factors have brought the changing role of women in the economy since 1945? ...

    This new demand culture has seen the development of the metropolitan woman, a more powerful, independent and more ambitious woman. In terms of legislation then, women in the workplace are fully equal with men. In practice they are not. On average today women working full time earn �559 less per

  2. As the nineteenth century opened, life presented few opportunities for women to experience personal ...

    In this way Hawthorne reinforces traditional values. Women are nothing without a man's love and society's approval. Other romantic writers echo this theme. In many of Edgar Allen Poe's short stories and lyric poems, women are fragile creatures whose lives revolve around a man.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work