• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"People who do well at school are just more intelligent then people who do less well." Why are sociologists critical of this view?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"People who do well at school are just more intelligent then people who do less well." Why are sociologists critical of this view? Many sociologists argue that there are many more factors that play a big part other then school. Intelligence is measured by intelligence tests which gives an individual's intelligence quotient or know as IQ. Many researchers argue that IQ tests are biased in favour of the middle class. There is an agreement that intelligence is due to both genetic and environmental factors. Environmental influences everything from diet to social class from housing. It is estimated that between 60% and 80% of intelligence is genetically based, this is why many sociologists are critical of this view. Identical twins raised in different environments show they have different IQ scores. Since the twins are genetically identical, it can be argued that the different IQ scores are caused by environments. "Working class culture leads working class children into underachievement" To what extent does evidence support this view? ...read more.

Middle

of a child's ability. Bad behaviour, for example, is taken to be indicative of a poor home background which is taken, in turn to be indicative of low ability. Working-class children are less successful in the education system. Sociologists have explained this by the facts that, the home background is often not as helpful for educational success as that of the middle class; the neighbourhood may also weaken the chances of the working-class child; and what happens inside the school, particularly the actions of the teachers and the peer group, can help the middle-class child and harm the working-class child. Hyman ("The Value Systems of Different Classes", 1967), argues that the value system of the working classes acts as a barrier to their educational advancement, in terms of the way they place a lower value on: * Educational success * High occupational status * Opportunities for personal advancement through education Despite the evidence put forward by the above witnesses, there is also a large number of contrary interpretations based mainly around the idea that the concept of class sub-cultures takes it ...read more.

Conclusion

Rather, children who succeed are those, regardless of their objective class background, whose parents socialise them into the norms and values of middle class life. Approaches were concerned to expose class differences in attitudes towards education. Working class attitudes were seen as a 'deficit system'. Douglas (1964) argued that working class parents offer less encouragement and support towards their children's education The effect of studies like that of Douglas was to 'blame the victim'; working class culture was seen as problematic. One result was the idea that certain students needed 'compensatory education' and gave rise to Educational Priority Areas as a result of the Plowden Report of 1967. In the USA there was a similar scheme called 'Operation Headstart'. "Sociology is the objective study of human behaviour in so far as it is affected by the fact that people live in groups". Sugarman ("Sociology", 1968) Sugarman claimed that many middle-class occupations provide an opportunity for continuous advancement in income and status. This encouraged planning for the future: for example, the investment of time, energy and money in training to meet requirements of higher-status jobs. (Aneil Patel) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. To what extent do sociologists argue that the family is beneficial to society?

    Marxist-feminists, just like Engels, see the family as a stumbling block to female emancipation. They feel that the family is patriarchal. They argue that males dominate family relationships. Marxist-feminists such as Margaret Benston in 1969 also see the female as important to the needs of the capitalist economy as they

  2. Young people, class and gender

    About eight and a half million women were able to vote in the 1918 election. Women also became eligible to stand as MPs. Several suffragette campaigners stood for Parliament in the 1918 election. It is worth noting that none were successful.

  1. To what extent do sociologists agree that different levels of educational attainment are affected ...

    This belief may be due to the lower value the working class place on the importance of education and higher educational status. Some sociologists also say that this may be due to the lack of opportunity which is enhanced more so, by the working class' own poor belief in themselves.

  2. In what way have contemporary philosophers and sociologists of science challenged the view that ...

    The significant factor here is that much of the same evidence was used to support the hypothesis of global warming that was used in support of global cooling. Interpretive sociologists believe that humans try to make sense of the world and act in light of their interpretations, this obviously includes the interpretations of scientists.

  1. This critical assessment of the Canada's justice system it is important

    (Galabuzi, 2001 p.87) The black population in Canada has a relatively low income rate and high percentage of people under the poverty line when compared to white people living in Canada (European decent)(Galabuzi, 2001 p.77) Its safe to assume that black people are more represented in jail due to the fact that they

  2. Some sociologists even speak of an 'educational revolution'

    Indeed, education became the most important channel of social mobility - and lack of education became thus the recipe for social exclusion. In many countries a social movement was born, a coalition of trade unions, students' organisations, political parties and others, to 'democratise' higher education, i.e.

  1. Hypothesis: Children are born to succeed or fail

    The under representation of minority groups itself acts as a deterrent and leads to the belief of failure associated with certain pathways of life. (Ref 7) The Guardian newspaper dated December 1996 published an article on a law student named Kamlesh Bahl.

  2. Is working class underachievement better explained by factors inside or outside the school?

    The imminent thought of a wage, adult status and freedom from the school discipline system will encourage a working class individual to go down this path as it seems more appealing. This shows an explanation to the different attitudes between the middle and working classes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work