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Sex and Gender.

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Sex and Gender ____________________________ The taboo nature of there problems may mean they are isolated and often kept in the dark. This may cause considerable Confusion as although gender is a cultural conception it is often misrepresented as biological facts. In reality, there is a wide spectrum of sex/gender identity and people can be dotted anywhere along the line between male and female masculine and feminine. Some people may be relived to discover their intersexuality particularly if their sexual self-identification is at odds with the sex that has been assigned to them . However, maybe the real discomfort (disorder) grows through adolescence and into adulthood, as family and society, in ignorance of their underlying gender identity, relentlessly reinforce expectations imposed upon them in accordance with their physical appearance alone. One problem is who decides who needs treatment and who doesn't. Evidence (from the new scientist) shows that boys are six times more likely to singled out for treatment as parents see boys acting or dressing like girls as less acceptable. Another problem is many children experience identity confusion and many grow out of it or work through it managing with out help to resolve the confusion for themselves. Treatment may interrupt this important process to assert a contrived general assumption about what men and women should be. It's not right to Pathologies something because it is not yet socially acceptable. Treatment of this disorder is based on the belief that happiness is possible only for individuals who conform to male or female sex and gender roles.

Middle

to define patriarchy as she has are discussed below, with reference to the work of second and third wave feminist thinkers. Gender and Gender Inequalities in the Domestic and Occupational Divisions of Labour Feminist concepts of gender and gender inequality allow us to refer more or less directly to a theoretical framework for understanding how they have come to form a basis that helps structure the whole of society according to the concept of patriarchy (Seidman, 1994). The gender differences, which lead to gender inequality in the division of labour, and presented as natural by patriarchy and unequal gender order has been normalised and legitimated by science, medicine and popular culture (Raymond, 1980). Feminists hold that this normalisation conceals the social and political formation of an unequal male order, arguing that gender difference is socially produced in order to sustain male dominance (Seidman, 1994). Frable (1997) points out that there is no basis for a biological account of gender difference since gender identity can only refer to the psychological sense of being male or female. Gender is now understood as a social category (Frable, 1997) and so liberal feminism was correct to deny that nature requires rigidly separate and unequal social roles based on gender (Ruehl, 1983). The patriarchal concepts of gender criticised by feminists are used to ascribe the roles that result in gender inequality in the division of labour (Sarup, 1993). This view is supported by Garnsey (1991)

Conclusion

These reforms particularly reflect the western feminist concern with differential relationships. In the area of social policy and the law, reformers have begun to focus on protecting the individual rights of vulnerable household members ¡V women, children, and the elderly (MacLean & Kurczewzki 1994) at the expense of patriarchal privilege. Crucially, whilst the law has become aware of the potential for the exploitation of family members and in acting underlines the importance of public attitudes and legislation in maintaining gender inequalities and differential relationships; the reform approach cannot be seen as an open acknowledgement that socialisation patterns and family arrangements are male dominated (MacLean & Kurczewzki 1994). Following the vote of the General Synod in 1992, the ordination of women in the Church of England has challenged hundreds of years of patriarchal authority and tradition in the church. The implicit relationship between individual men and institutions can be viewed explicitly in the complex provision made to protect those who are individually opposed using the church¡¦s own structures. Regardless of the refusal of key patriarchal institutions to acknowledge the extent to which man have been and are systematically and deliberately privileged by their structures and actions, these dominant forms of power can help produce social change, even if they are only attempting to keep in touch with contemporary society (Cooper, 1995). The process of power is therefore open to change and feminist theorists have shown using their account of patriarchy that the ¡¥by products¡¦ of power (e.g., inequality) can be mediated by the institution which represents it and moderated to be less damaging to individuals (Cooper, 1989).

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