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Social Stratification - Theories

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Introduction

Sociology: - Social Stratification POST-CLASSICAL AND CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY Class-Based Theories: "Syntheses" of Marxian, Weberian, Structural-Functional Views 1. Ralf Dahrendorf 2. Gerhard Lenski "Neo-Marxist" 1. Nicos Poulantzas 2. Erik Olin Wright "Neo-Weberian" 1. Frank Parkin 2. Anthony Giddens Non-Class-Based Theories: Gender-Based Inequality Race-Ethnicity, Religious, Language: Primordial Group Inequality Culture-, Education-Based Inequality Rational Choice ( also: Local Justice) Inequality GENDER INEQUALITY I. "Domestic" and General Inequality: A. Material well-being, entitlement to and control of material rewards and resources B. Safety and Security C. Participation in society, social groups, power, influence - in nuclear and extended families, communities D. Autonomy, self-determination, control of self, body E. Control of others F. Education, information G. Symbolic rewards, resources; prestige, honor II. "Public" and Labor Markety Inequality A. Knowledge, information, graining B. ...read more.

Middle

Estates: Political, economic status determined by birth, parentage; social, political spinoffs; endogamy prescribed; inter-estate mobility generallyproscribed, though not necessarily ritually or religiously tabooed. Elites: "Ruling" vs. "Functional" Elites Monolithic vs. fragmented elites Elite Stability vs. circulation, open recruitment Elites in Democracies: C. Wright Mills and successors Elites in Relation to Social Classes: Digby Baltzell and successors Elites in conflict with non-elites , authority vs. non-authority Identifying, studying elites: methodological & technical problems. Status Groups: Measurement of status revisited Bases, axes of positive and negative status: stigma, stereotyping, Orientalism again. Identifying status groups: subjective, reputation, & objective criteria Technical aspects: criteria, assessing status as entitlement Examples Social Classes as Membership Groups, Collectivities: Subjectively-Conceived Classes- Examples, Problems Reputationally-Conceived Classes: the Warner school examples Objectively-Conceived Classes Marx Weber UK Registrar-General and Related Occupation-based Classes Giddens: Theoretical "Market Position" Classes Goldthorpe: Applied "Market Position" Classes Wright: Theoretical and Applied "Marxian" Classes Grusky: The case for "disaggregation" of class divisions. ...read more.

Conclusion

class, or akin to Warner's "Lower Middle" and higher part of his "Upper Lower" classes combined, approximately the same as oldthorpe's "Intermediate Classes" combined. "Uncredentialed Working- and Underclass" is similar to Giddens' "lower, or working" class, akin to the lower part of Warner's "Upper lower" and his "Lower Lower" class combined and to Goldthorpe's Unskilled Working" Class. EXPLANATIONS FOR SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENTIATION and ITS INTERGENERATIONAL REPRODUCTION Motif 1: Inertia, tradition, custom, imitation, etc. Motif 2: Wealth and Income Differences Motif 3: Complexity of Work Tasks; Self-Direction in Work Motif 4: Elaborated vs. Restrictive Language Codes FACTORS REPUTEDLY ASSOCIATED WITH DIMINISHING CLASS DIFFERENTIATION , "Decline of Classes" Declining fertility in working class, convergence to small family patterns Stability of working class employment and income General enhancement of incomes, consumption; "mass" marketing Increase in schooling, extended school continuation, credentialing and declining influence of family background factors in status attainment "Revolutions" in communications and information, mutual visibility Erosion of White Collar workplace status and income advantages Decline of Class Politics, Class Voting ...read more.

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