• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Sociology Essay - The History of Welfare and the Problem of Poverty in England.

Extracts from this document...


Sociology - Welfare The Poor Law Act was introduced in England in 1601, before this the only basis of a welfare state was through connections between family friends and self-help. This new act meant that parishes were responsible for providing help to the poor. It created a compulsory poor rate and the creation of 'overseers' of relief. Furthermore it created provision for 'setting the poor on work'. This law acknowledged that care of the poor was a community problem and led to the poor being divided into two groups the deserving and undeserving poor. The 'deserving poor' were people who wanted to work but could not find work through no fault of their own. These people were given help in the form of food and clothes or maybe even money known as outdoor relief. Additionally there were people who were sick, ill and old these people were also given helped and looked after. For example orphans and children of the poor were given to tradesman to help them learn a trade known as indoor relief. This was because they were looked at as blameless for their predicament. (Bloy, 2002) The deserving poor... "On the whole shall not be made really or apparently as eligible as the independent labourer of the lowest class". ...read more.


Young people aged 13-18 could only work twelve hours a day. There were further changes to improve health and safety in factories and other places in work. An independent factory inspection was set up. The awareness of poor sanitation and the effects grew and steps were taken to improve sewerage disposal and a demand for a supply of clean water. From 1871 local authorities were required to employee medical offices to deal with public health issues. State support was also provided for education also began in the nineteenth century starting in 1833 with grants to support the work of church schools which provided some education for the poor. The liberals furthermore in 1870 started providing primary education, and in 1880 schooling became compulsory for the first time between the ages of 5 and 10. Towards the end of the 19th century attitudes towards the poor began to change however, the main view of the governing class in the last part of the 19th century was that state involvement should be kept to a minimum. The two most famous and inspiring were Charles Booth who wrote 'Life and Labour of the people in London' between 1886 and 1903, and Seebohm Rowntree, who wrote about the 'City of York in poverty' - a study of town life in 1901 (Lewis, 2009). ...read more.


Beveridge did not want the people to become dependent on the welfare system. Beveridge believed that as problems were solved the state expenditure would be reduced. He saw that with a well educated, fully employed workforce, fewer people would need to claim benefits. Furthermore better health care would significantly reduce the illness and so cut the financial burden on the state (M.Holborn, 2007). After the report was created it received large support from the government and most of Beveridge's proposals were introduced. It was stated by Pat Thane (1942) it 'caught the public imagination and came to symbolise the hope for a different, more just world. Some of the changes made because of this report were implemented in 1945 three years after the report was created. The Education Act 1944 created universal state secondary education and raised the school leaving age to 15 and came into effect in 1947. In 1948 the National Health Service was introduced, this allowed free services available for everyone including GP's and hospital services. After the war the labour government was influenced by the views of the Beveridge report and tried to maintain a high level of unemployment. Furthermore the labour government implemented the policy of publically financing the buildings of new towns and led the way to a major house-building which resulted in 1 million houses built by 1951 (M.Holborn, 2007). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Approaches to History: Sociology and History

    Whereas psychology studies human interaction of individuals; sociology studies the interaction that occurs within and between social groups. In this sense sociology would be described as a subject that places individuals in their social context as members of social groups, communities and as members of social institutions such as work

  2. A-Level Sociology Theory + Methods Revision.

    Arguments against - "Humanist + Radical View" Claim - Fundamental distinction between the nat + soc sciences. Sociology can't be value free. 1. Soc. science meaningfully interprets: - Aim of socio is to reveal the meanings actors put on their actions.

  1. crime and poverty

    The reason why I am using these is because they would be useful to find these things out because there are always things in the news and the internet about crime and statistics and to look at peoples views on crime and gangs.

  2. Max Weber: Basic Terms (The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology)

    The Religious Foundations of Worldly Asceticism However, this idea of the calling was not sufficient for the development of the spirit of capitalism. We needed the effects of forms of ascetic Protestantism: Calvinism, Pietism, Methodism and the Baptist sects. An important thing to keep in mind is that these folks

  1. Deforestation of the Amazon Rainfores- Humanities Essay

    The Brazilian government are not doing too much to reduce CO2 emissions. Deforestation is a global issue as everyone is involved in the import and export of resources from the Amazon rainforest. If the whole of the Brazilian rainforest get's destroyed in 30 years it will not just be the

  2. Is domestic violence a purely private problem or a national social problem?

    Dobash & Dobash comment that with this action taken, "the issue disappeared from public view....and once again became the concern only of those individuals directly involved." (1979:5). The patriarchal system was still very much upheld by society and the law, Muncie and McLaughlin comment, "whilst domestic violence was to some extent recognised, it was also treated with some ambivalence."


    assistance only given as a last resort, when the individual has exhausted all other means. The assumption is that the market and the individual are the natural channels to fulfil their welfare needs are just that, an assumption. Many individuals cannot participate in the market, in particular those on low

  2. This essay proposes to discuss different accounts of the welfare state by both mainstream ...

    (Lecture (5) 12-2-02) Esping-Anderson however goes on to say that if Marshall's (1950) rights are granted on the basis of citizenship rather than performance, they will entail a de-commodification of the status of individuals vis-�-vis the market. De-commodification occurs, according to Esping-Anderson when a service is rendered as a matter

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work