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The human family is a group composed of a woman, her dependent children, and at least one adult male joined through marriage or blood relationship.

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The human family is a group composed of a woman, her dependent children, and at least one adult male joined through marriage or blood relationship. The family may take many forms, ranging all the way from a single married couple with their children, as in Chinese society, to a large group composed of several brothers and sisters with their children. The particular form taken by the family is related to particular social, historical, and ecological circumstances. The family, long regarded Chinese as a critically necessary, core social institution, today has become a matter for controversy and discussion. Traditionally, the Chinese family system has operated to bind women to their reproductive function. Until relatively recently, motherhood has been central to our society's definition of the adult female-the notion that a woman must have children and rear them well. Chinese family patterns have implied that sex is inevitably connected with reproduction. Additionally, the motherhood mandate has ordained that the woman who bears a child must be the major person responsible for his or her rearing. Each woman raises one man's children in an individual household viewed as private property and private space. This has led to the slow development of institutions providing child-care services outside the home. Moreover, studies show that husbands of women working in the wage economy do not engage in more work around the house than do husbands whose wives stay at home. One recent survey found that only 14 percent of husbands in two-earner families perform as much as half the housework, and 60 percent do less than a quarter. Hence, working wives typically must do two jobs while their husbands' do but one. Even if a husband is unemployed, he does much less housework than a wife who puts in a forty-hour week. All too frequently, men appropriated women for their beds and likewise pressed them into service in their holds and kitchens. ...read more.


There is a continual moving back and forth between kitchens, and conversations are carried on from open doorways through the long, hot afternoons of summer. The shy young girl who enters the village as a bride is examined as frankly and suspiciously by the women as an animal that is up for sale. If she is deferential to her elders, does not criticize or compare her new world unfavorably with the one she has left, the older residents will gradually accept her presence on the edge of their conversations and stop changing the topic to general subjects when she brings the family laundry to scrub on the rocks near them. As the young bride meets other girls in her position, she makes allies for the future, but she must also develop relationships with the older women. She learns to use considerable discretion in making and receiving confidences, for a girl who gossips freely about the affairs of her husband's household may find herself always on the outside of the group, or worse yet, accused of snobbery. Once a young bride has established herself as a member of the women's community, she has also established for herself a certain amount of protection. I f the members of her husband's family step beyond the limits of propriety in their treatment of her---such as refusing to allow her to return to her natal home for her brother's wedding or beating her without serious justification---she can complain to a woman friend, preferably older, while they are washing vegetables at the communal pump. The story will quickly spread to the other women, and one of them will take it upon herself to check the facts with another member of the girl's household. For a few days the matter will be thoroughly discussed whenever a few women gather. In a young wife's first few years in the community, she can expect to have her mother-in-law's side of any disagreement given fuller weight than her own---her mother-in-law has, after all, been a part of the community a lot longer. ...read more.


A child must also learn that a major resource for healthy self-esteem comes from within. Some parents raise their children to depend on extend rather than internal reinforcement through practices such as paying for good grades on report cards or exchanging special privileges for good behavior. The child learns to rely on others to maintain a high self-esteem and is not prepared to live in a world in which desirable behavior does not automatically produce a tangible reward such as a smile, money, or special privileges. Maintaining a healthy self-esteem is a challenge that continues throughout life. One family found that they could help each other identify positive attitudes. One evening during an electric storm the family gathered around the kitchen table, and each person wrote down two things that they liked about each family member. The father later commented, "It was quite an experience, opening each little piece of paper and reading the message. I still have those gifts, and when I have had a really bad day, I read through them and I always come away feeling better." The foundation of a healthy family depends on the ability of the parents to communicate messages of love, trust, and self-worth to each child. This is the basis on which self-esteem is built, and as the child grows, self-esteem changes from a collection of other's feelings to become personal feelings about the self. Ultimately a person's self-esteem is reflected in the way he or she interacts with others. In conclusion, the family is the core of the society and not only the man and the woman but also the elderly and the children all play important roles in it. The happy family is the family that every member can live happily and get love from each other. The elderly can be taken care of and the children can get good education and self-esteem. We should take our great efforts to build the new and healthy family concept. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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