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The tumultuous years between 1830 and 1848 saw the rise of liberalism, egalitarianism, nationalism and idealism in Europe.

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Introduction

The tumultuous years between 1830 and 1848 saw the rise of liberalism, egalitarianism, nationalism and idealism in Europe. The innovative rebellions in France had sent shockwaves throughout the West and their impact was also felt across the East into Germany. It was at this time that the philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, was enjoying a more peaceful time in his life. Born in the German city Danzig in 1788, his family was of Dutch origin and enjoyed considerable wealth and prominence, travelling frequently across France, Italy, Belgium and Germany.1 By 1820, when Schopenhauer had arrived in Berlin, the influence from the French Revolution had started stirrings of dissent across Germany and it was to be Schopenhauer's works that would be greatly influential in later years. Unfortunately though, he was unable to fully enjoy the fame from his works as he died not long after his recognition in the academic world. Instead, Schopenhauer lived a relatively quiet life, hounded only by his own anxiety; 'I always have an anxious concern that causes me to see dangers where none exist.'2 In January of 1820, Schopenhauer was given the right to lecture at the university of Berlin.3 However highly educated and well traveled Schopenhauer was though, his experience in Berlin was not what one would call 'academically fruitful', for in March of 1820, he obstinately scheduled his class at a time that was simultaneous with that of the philosphical giant, Hegel.4 Not surprisingly, Schopenhauer found that he had a relatively small class each semester compared to Hegel's two hundred. ...read more.

Middle

As he himself wrote; 'A century may pass ere there shall again meet in the same head so much Kantian philosophy with so much English as happen to dwell in mine.'12 During this later phase of his life, Schopenhauer wrote a short work in 1836, �ber den Willen in der Natur (On the Will in Nature), that aimed to confirm and reiterate his metaphysical views in light of scientific evidence.13 He also completed an essay of which he was immensely proud, On the Freedom of Human Will (�ber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens) in 1839, which was awarded first prize from the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters in Drontheim.14 Unfortunately, when a year later he entered the competion with a second essay, On the Foundations of Morality (�ber die Grundlage der Moral), it was not honored with an award by The Royal Danish Society of the Sciences in Copenhagen, even though it was the sole entry.15 Schopenhauer also completed an accompanying volume to The World as Will and Representation, which was published in 1844 along with the first volume in a combined second edition.16 Schopenhauer's philosophy has been widely influential, partly because his outlook acknowledges traditional moral values without the need to postulate the existence of God. In addition, his view allowed for the possibility of absolute knowledge by means of mystical experience. Schopenhauer also implicitly challenges the hegemony of science and other literalistic modes of expression, substituting in their place, more musical and literary styles ...read more.

Conclusion

(Toronto, 1972) * Christopher Janaway., Schopenhauer. (Oxford, 1994) * Fredrick Copleston., Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. (Britain, 1946) 1 Enoch, S.S., Socrates to Sartre; A History of Philosophy. (Sydney, 1999) p. 319 2 Christopher Janaway., Schopenhauer. (Oxford, 1994) p. 2 3 Christopher Janaway., Schopenhauer. (Oxford, 1994) p. 7. 4 Enoch, S.S., Socrates to Sartre; A History of Philosophy. (Sydney, 1999) p. 320 5 Christopher Janaway., Schopenhauer. (Oxford, 1994) p. 7 6 Christopher Janaway., Schopenhauer. (Oxford, 1994) p. 7. 7 Patrick Gardiner., Schopenhauer. (Victoria, 1963) p.19 8 Enoch, S.S., Socrates to Sartre; A History of Philosophy. (Sydney, 1999) p. 320 9 Enoch, S.S., Socrates to Sartre; A History of Philosophy. (Sydney, 1999) p. 320 10 Patrick Gardiner, Schopenhauer. (Victoria, 1963) p. 19 11 Bryan Magee., The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. (Melbourne, 1983) p. 21 12 Bryan Magee., The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. (Melbourne, 1983) p. 21 13 Fredrick Copleston., Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. (Britain, 1946) p. 36 14 Fredrick Copleston., Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. (Britain, 1946) p. 36 15 Enoch, S.S., Socrates to Sartre; A History of Philosophy. (Sydney, 1999) p. 320 16 Fredrick Copleston., Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. (Britain, 1946) p. 36 17 Bryan Magee., The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. (Melbourne, 1983) p. 19 18 Anchor, R., Germany Confronts Modernization: German Culture and Society 1790 - 1890. (Toronto, 1972) p. 96 19 Anchor, R., Germany Confronts Modernization: German Culture and Society 1790 - 1890. (Toronto, 1972) p. 50 20 Fredrick Copleston., Arthur Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. (Britain, 1946) p. 37 21 Bryan Magee., The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. (Melbourne, 1983) p. 143 Tina Spencer - 021300 ...read more.

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