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This paper will discuss the difference, if exists, between the managerial styles of males and females. First, we will shed some light on the basic differences in personality traits and competencies between men and women, and then will analyze the differen

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Introduction

Introduction Nearly half of the U.S. workforce is now made up of women, and women are a growing percentage of the workforce in most countries throughout the world (Robbins, 2005:18). And it's so common these days to find a woman who are supervising or managing group of men. This paper will discuss the difference, if exists, between the managerial styles of males and females. First, we will shed some light on the basic differences in personality traits and competencies between men and women, and then will analyze the different cultural perceptions of a working man and woman, after that, we will discuss the interaction effect of gender of supervisor and gender of subordinate on perceived mentoring, and finally will discuss the selection differences in recruiting men and women for a managerial position. Differences in personality between men and women: Intellectual Ability There is an interesting pattern of gender differences on the various cognitive measures. Women performed better than men on most of the memory tests, while men performed better than women on most of the executive function tests. The gender difference on memory is in line with many published studies, but the gender difference on executive function measures has received relatively little attention to date. Socially, women are encouraged to be good mothers while men are encouraged to work and protect family and to make money. Commonly held views regarding men and women continue to suggest that women are more committed to family than to work and that men are more committed to work than to family (Cook, 1994: P85-95). Further, employers are likely to view family responsibilities as a sign of limited work commitment on the part of the employee (Fletcher & Bailyn, 1996, P 256-267). ...read more.

Middle

British colonialism created a middle class in India, which allowed some women to break free of the strictures by taking advantage of opportunities in the professions and jobs. At the beginning of this century Indian women began to move into professions like medicine and teaching. This happened as a response to the demand for education and healthcare among the female relatives of middle class men, and also because of sexual segregation. Female seclusion demanded that other women provide these services. When India became independent in 1947, the Indian women's movement also succeeded in raising women's legal position to a level comparable with many rich countries of the West (Times of India, 1996, p.1). After independence, government service and administrative jobs were opened to women (Ashana, P. 1974; Desuza, V. 1980 Liddle and Joshi, 1990). Educated women who had played an active role during the independence movement took up leadership positions. "By 1988 10% of members of parliament were women, and 18% percent of women who ran for office in the state legislative assemblies in 1983 won, while only 17% of the men who sought such offices won" (Bumiller, 1990, p.152). A majority of women in India as in the United States however are in feminist professions. Both societies place low status on such women's professions and pay them less than men. Educational attainment and employment does bring status to individual women. It improves their chances of marrying in a higher caste or status family. It gives them economic independence. The Indian professional women experience job discrimination, as well as discrimination in selection, promotion, training and assessment just like the American women. In employment, restrictions are imposed on their physical mobility and their social interaction with males by sexual harassment at work, and by gossip affecting all aspects of their lives. ...read more.

Conclusion

A survey (Passport to Opportunity: US Women in Global Business) found that respondents believed women aren't as internationally mobile as men; yet 80% of female expatriates say they've never turned down a relocation assignment; compared with 71% of men. Another debate is that women might have a tougher time building relationships with businesspeople overseas; yet 70% of US women in this survey said they were effective at building business relationships with men abroad (Stroh, 2000, P241). Also some organizations hesitate to hire women for international positions because of target country cultural environment. For example in Asian countries there is a fear that women expatriate manager may face sexism. Korea is an extreme example of male sexism, with women virtually absent from higher managerial levels. "On the other hand, there is an advantage doing so. In Japan and China, for example, Western women, simply because of their foreignness, are often treated with respect that might not always be accorded to their ethnic local female counterparts in similar positions of authority" (Lasserre & Schutte, 1995, P276). Various factors contribute to women expatriate's success. One factor is that married expatriates experienced greater cross cultural adjustments than single ones, apparently because of the support they get from their spouses. The same is assumed to apply to male expatriates. The result also suggests it's important that companies "continue to support the cross cultural adjustments of their female expatriates throughout the entire period of their overseas assignments" (Caliguri, 1999, P163). Women, management and change The fact remains that although women are demonstrably better qualified, receive more training and are more likely to learn new skills on their own initiative than men; only 15% of managers are women. The issues which women often face are associated with entering a career world developed by a majority which may have specific sets of needs and methods of operation. ...read more.

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