• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Trace the development of the idea of Progress in the18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Mustafa Kayaoglu Trace the development of the idea of Progress in the18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Idea of progress has been one of the issues in the social thought even before the emergence of sociology as a science. Although Hobbes do not have a clear understanding of progress, he realizes the problems of the time. He states "Homo homini lupus,"- men eat men. He sees the state as the force that maintains the order within the society. He does not have the idea of rebellion against the state, but Rousseau finds a solution to the oppressive structure of the state. For Rousseau, individuals voluntarily give up some of their rights and become free in the society. Being free without a society is meaningless for him. Thus society is formed with a social contract by the individuals. Society gives its rights to the state in order to live in an equal environment. Just like they form the society, they also have right to take it away. "Return to nature" is the basic idea of this contractual agreement within the society that gives the right to rebel against the state. Thus for Rousseau society can break down the social order that is constructed by the members of the society and the status quo, and form a new social order for the benefit of the members of that society. ...read more.

Middle

For Marx first stage is the "primitive communism" where there is no division of labor. With the domestication of animals and agriculture division of labor emerged. For him division of labor leads to inequality between the members of the society. Thus class system is the main element through out the history. Slavery, Asiatic mode of production, feudalism, capitalism and communism through socialism are the stages of progress for Marx. Influenced by Hegel class conflict is the necessary element for the progress. However his approach is based on materialistic conceptions. Marx somewhere states that "philosophers have interpreted the world in various ways but the point is to change it" Forces of production and relations of production are the elements of mode of production. Forces of production are technology and the labor force, where as the relations of the production, such as state, religion arts, is the social relations that individuals enter into during the process of production. Marx revolutionary progress provides that forces of production has to be far advanced in order to alter the relation of productions. Thus for Marx idea of progress posits that evolution occurs through revolution. Feudalism led to capitalism by the emergence of merchants in the feudal system. ...read more.

Conclusion

Conformist: Accepts both the means of the society and the values of the society and the structure is available for them. Innovators: Accepts the values but rejects the means to achieve them. Crime is a way to achieve the goals Ritualists: Accepts the means and rejects the goals of the society. Retreats: Rejects both means and the goals of the society, but do not take action. For example, drug addicts and drunkards. Rebellions; Rejects both means and the goals of the society and have their own goals and means. Merton also do not support linear progress for him system may go worse and he is not a holistic. Finally post-modern theorists have totally different approach to sociology and to the progress in the society. Most of the post-modern theorists are pessimistic about the social change. I believe some of their concepts will be enough to understand their view. Brazillianisation of the world, the illusion of the end, brave new world, new world order are some of these concepts. All believe that individuals, societies are will have hard time because of the improvements that occurred in the past. Individualism will increase people have to face with the difficulties by themselves. Capitalism will lead to extinct of the dependent countries. Thus social change is circular here, where as it is like a pendulum for Sorokin who is a contemporary theorist. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Max Weber: Basic Terms (The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology)

    its meaningful content, the action of each takes account of the others and is oriented to the behavior of others. Mere group membership is not sufficient. The relation of the actors may be solidary, or the opposite. Eg, a 'state' ceases to exist when there is no longer a probability

  2. Discuss the change from the "one sex" model to the "two sex" model and ...

    Galen's anatomical understanding influenced artisans, midwives and surgeons alike. The notion of heat and moisture is fundamental to Galen's understanding of the anatomical differences between female and male. The amount of heat and moisture produced by a specific body was viewed as a direct guide of its place in the great chain of being; it's hierarchical order of rank according to degrees of perfection.

  1. The development of Spartan society.

    Further, they administered laws, were custodians to the kings and presided over the ekklesia and gerousia. Yet, Aristotle criticises the Ephorate for merely five men elected 'lays them open to bribery... (and) they have far too much license'11 as in Source A.

  2. James Gilligan's Thesis on Violence

    By the end of the twentieth century, there were several theories or explanatory models attempting to integrate the findings from research into biological bases of aggression and violence. "Human violence itself, however, is a heterogeneous phenomenon, and there is no single theory that can explain all forms of violence in all individuals.

  1. In what respects was there a 'separation of spheres' in the later half of ...

    There were groups formed to try and change things. In 1850-1880, feminists began to fight battles on several fronts most of this work was associated with the Langham place group, Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon campaigned for married women's property rights.

  2. Spot The Difference Attitudes towards people onwelfare benefit in the 19th and 21st centuries

    This change could be due to people's tolerance and attitude towards different classes. However, it seems more apparent that there are different attitudes towards social classes. Usually, people aren't willing to live near people of a lower class, places like council estates accommodate people of the same status, but they are prepared to pay taxes towards their welfare and benefits.

  1. The ancient civilizations of Central and South America

    This left the Inca Empire powerless and helpless to any European invasions. After about 40 years of fighting the Spanish, in 1572, a very determined attempt by the Spanish to conquer the Incas finally succeeded and the last of the Inca emperors was captured and later killed.

  2. Positivism: "Love, Order, Progress" - Auguste Comte (1795 - 1857) and Emile Durkheim (1858 ...

    Intellectually and culturally in the nineteenth century there were fundamental developments in science, the decline in religious certainty, and shifts in the way that human beings were perceived. Marx, Darwin, and the geologist Lyell, are representative and important figures of the intellectual trend which broke with the idea that human beings were at the centre of creation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work