• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What has been the effect ofindustrialisationon the family?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What has been the effect of industrialisation on the family? Family relationships are always recognized within wider kinship groups. In virtually all societies we can identify what sociologists call the nuclear family, two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children. In most traditional kinship network of some type. When close relatives other than a married couple and children live either in the same household or in the same close and continuous relationship with one another, we speak of an extended family. An extended family may include grandparents, brothers and their wives, sisters and their husbands, aunts and nephews. Before industrialisation there were a lot more extended families but after industrialisation there were a lot more nuclear families. Industrialisation refers to the emergence of mass production using machinery, based on the use of inanimate power resources (like steam or electricity). The family is viewed from all different angles which are based on the views of functionalists, feminists and Marxists just to name but a few. The American Sociologist Talcott Parsons who is a functionalist believes that the family only has two main functions left which are primary socialisation and personality stabilisation. ...read more.

Middle

During the 1970's and 1980's, feminist perspectives dominated most debates and research on the family. If previously the sociology of the family had focused on family structures, the historical development of the nuclear and extended family and the importance of kinship ties, feminism succeeded in directing attention inside families to examine the experiences of women in the domestic sphere. Feminists writings have emphasized a broad spectrum of topics and one of the central concerns which was explored in great depth was the way in which chores were allocated between members of a household. Among feminists there are differing opinions about the historical emergence of this division. While some feminists see it as an outcome of industrial capitalism, others claim that it is linked to patriarchy, and it predates industrialisation. There is some reason to believe that a domestic division of labour existed prior to industrialisation, but it seems clear that capitalist production brought about a much clearer distinction between the domestic and work realms. This process resulted in crystallisation of 'male spheres' and 'female spheres' and power relationships which are felt to this day. ...read more.

Conclusion

He didn't mean that all inequalities between individuals would disappear but the economic system would come under communal ownership and a more humane society than he knew at that present time would be established. Industrialisation took place between 1564 - 1821. It made difference to all family size, the pre-industrial family was 90% nuclear and the post-industrial family was nuclear. Early theories from functionalists about the family were wrong. Industrialisation began in Britain and North Western Europe and the nuclear family created the conditions for industrialisation. Between 1564 and 1821 only about 10% of all households in Britain contained kin beyond the nuclear family. This percentage is the same for England in 1966. More generally a European family which was also broadly nuclear was found in other countries such as Holland, Belgium and Northern France. While the Southern and Eastern European families were mostly extended. Based on evidence found by British Historian Mark Anderson, the post-industrial extended family began with industrialisation and reached its height during the early 20th century, during the depression. The family was no longer a unit of production as its members were wage earners. The family extended its network under conditions of hard times. The basic ties between a mother and her married daughters became stronger while conjugal ties were weak. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Changes in Family Roles

    Most of the time he was away working, while at home he was exhausted from all the work and therefore liked to relax. Me: And was it hard for you to get a job? Respondent: I found it a little bit hard to get a job because not many women

  2. “The nuclear family is the cornerstone of society”.Discuss with reference to three sociological perspectives.

    On the other hand marxism provides a scientific materialist foundation, not only for socialism but also for women's liberation. It laid bare the roots of women's oppression, its relationship to a system of production based on private property and a society divided between a class that owned the wealth and a class that produced it.

  1. Rationale - I have decided to study the gender-oriented issue of conjugal roles in ...

    I was then able to compare data to get a gender version of the amount of tasks done. My experience of carrying out the research compares to the interpretivists. Firstly, the task of the researcher is to investigate how those taking part in the study interpret the world around them.

  2. Is George Murdock's 'Nuclear Family' still, the norm in British society?

    "we can no longer point to a single, all uncompromising family type or structure and say for sure that this type is the most common" It is still the norm * Robert Chester (1985) "argues that the nuclear family and marriage remain the normative experience for the great majority of

  1. Pitted against Patriarchy

    She also reflects this decay in the gardens of these big houses which have gradually gone to seed and where "[e]verything is overgrown and tangled now."31 It is perhaps appropriate that McNeill, in painting this picture of decline within the Presbyterian community and family should present us with weak, passionless men, incapable of surviving without their partners.

  2. Organizational Perspectives on Stratification.

    CONCLUSIONS ABOUT EDUCATION Education as a case of a mobility distribution is discussed in detail at the end of the chapter. The substantive findings are as follows: 1. The chances for upward mobility increase steadily with increased education. 2. The proportion who move up a long distance form their social

  1. Aesthetic Labour at 'Brewsters' family theme pub.

    In social work training, I will undoubtedly be subjected to the idealistic interactions and roles I should act in the client relationship. Moreover, I can apply this in understanding that the client may also be displaying emotions of not their true self as Goffman (1961b)

  2. Gender Socialisation

    Most politicians wanted women to have the vote only if their party benefited from it. The Liberals in general believed women should have the vote, but they were fearful of the property qualification for the vote and were convinced new female voters would support the Conservatives as most women who held property were upper or middle class.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work