What has been the effect ofindustrialisationon the family?
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What has been the effect of industrialisation on the family? Family relationships are always recognized within wider kinship groups. In virtually all societies we can identify what sociologists call the nuclear family, two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children. In most traditional kinship network of some type. When close relatives other than a married couple and children live either in the same household or in the same close and continuous relationship with one another, we speak of an extended family. An extended family may include grandparents, brothers and their wives, sisters and their husbands, aunts and nephews. Before industrialisation there were a lot more extended families but after industrialisation there were a lot more nuclear families. Industrialisation refers to the emergence of mass production using machinery, based on the use of inanimate power resources (like steam or electricity). The family is viewed from all different angles which are based on the views of functionalists, feminists and Marxists just to name but a few. The American Sociologist Talcott Parsons who is a functionalist believes that the family only has two main functions left which are primary socialisation and personality stabilisation.
During the 1970's and 1980's, feminist perspectives dominated most debates and research on the family. If previously the sociology of the family had focused on family structures, the historical development of the nuclear and extended family and the importance of kinship ties, feminism succeeded in directing attention inside families to examine the experiences of women in the domestic sphere. Feminists writings have emphasized a broad spectrum of topics and one of the central concerns which was explored in great depth was the way in which chores were allocated between members of a household. Among feminists there are differing opinions about the historical emergence of this division. While some feminists see it as an outcome of industrial capitalism, others claim that it is linked to patriarchy, and it predates industrialisation. There is some reason to believe that a domestic division of labour existed prior to industrialisation, but it seems clear that capitalist production brought about a much clearer distinction between the domestic and work realms. This process resulted in crystallisation of 'male spheres' and 'female spheres' and power relationships which are felt to this day.
He didn't mean that all inequalities between individuals would disappear but the economic system would come under communal ownership and a more humane society than he knew at that present time would be established. Industrialisation took place between 1564 - 1821. It made difference to all family size, the pre-industrial family was 90% nuclear and the post-industrial family was nuclear. Early theories from functionalists about the family were wrong. Industrialisation began in Britain and North Western Europe and the nuclear family created the conditions for industrialisation. Between 1564 and 1821 only about 10% of all households in Britain contained kin beyond the nuclear family. This percentage is the same for England in 1966. More generally a European family which was also broadly nuclear was found in other countries such as Holland, Belgium and Northern France. While the Southern and Eastern European families were mostly extended. Based on evidence found by British Historian Mark Anderson, the post-industrial extended family began with industrialisation and reached its height during the early 20th century, during the depression. The family was no longer a unit of production as its members were wage earners. The family extended its network under conditions of hard times. The basic ties between a mother and her married daughters became stronger while conjugal ties were weak.
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