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What is meant by "social exclusion"? discuss with examples from the U.K.

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Introduction

What is meant by "social exclusion"? discuss with examples from the U.K There is a general consensus amongst key actors in the policy making process that poverty is a problem, thus it is a prescriptive issue-what are we going to do about it? It is a genuine problem that needs to be addressed properly as it is a social phenomenon central to a range of interconnected features. One of the main problems in dealing with this issue is the lack of fixed definitions , thus there is not an identifiable method of measuring and dealing with this multidimensional issue. Researchers have tried to develop a relative poverty level constant in order to chart data and make comparisons and interpretations more coherent and logical. Previous studies of poverty have been criticised for being too objective i.e. the personal view of the academic influencing the report rather than incorporating the subjective views of the people subject to the conditions. Poverty awareness was present as early as the nineteenth century, Booths studies of deprivation in London in the 1880s, began putting pressure on government to try and alleviate the problem. One of the first recognitions of poverty was "the poor law" 1601 however it aimed to classify and stemmed from notions of "deserving" and "undeserving" poor the later seen as detrimental to the fabric of society. ...read more.

Middle

Whilst the terms poverty and social exclusion are used interchangeably the term exclusion more specifically refers to the non membership of society. It infers that people are facing barriers to entry in achieving their full citizenship status. The social exclusion unit defined the phenomenon as follows; "social exclusion is a shorthand term for what can happen to when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health, poverty and family breakdown.(social exclusion unit 1999)" The unit is constructed of civil servants from various departments and external experts with valuable knowledge of dealing with the problem. The government seeks to address the problem as a whole i.e. "find joined up solutions for joined up problems" as single solutions will not solve a complex series of problems. Thirty nine neighbourhoods ere put forward for the New Deal For Communities (NDC) these areas exemplified non membership to society and with long tem benefit dependency, poor educational attainment and a number of other connected and reinforcing factors meant the welfare state in its crudest form had not been working and people had slipped through the safety net of our countries welfare regime. ...read more.

Conclusion

3)providing vital support to vulnerable families and children at risk. The comprehensive findings show maintaining public services is the crucial and shows that many people are dependent on the governments commitments to neighbourhood renewal. A variety of other services set up such as connexions personal advisors to keep young people informed of opportunities and sure start from the department of education and skills have also been put into action. Clearly social exclusion does still exist and in a capitalist society wit a mixed economy of welfare provision clearly groupings of individuals are not benefiting from a democratic society and a free market economy. In a competitive global market place and the inherited neo liberal terrain which Tony Blair's new labour are working from extreme social welfare reforms are not possible via state funding. Thee has been a growth of private finance agreements to keep public spending down and welfare provision up. However controversy meets this as not only does it undermine labours social democratic roots but risking public services with private organisations can be an unsuccessful venture. Aside from funding issues what is increasingly apparent and was summed up in David Pages phrase "Estate culture" is the attitudes and help from residents. People have to be receptive and support the governments bid to narrow the gap. ...read more.

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