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International Baccalaureate: Anthropology

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  1. Inter cultural communcation is the process of sending and receiving messages between people of different cultural background.

    How culture is learned * Listening to advice from family members, relatives, and elderly people (direct). * Also by observing other people's behaviour (indirect) Recognizing Cultural Differences 1. Social values * Formal rules of etiquette (exp table manners) are explicit and well defined. * Informal rules are learned through observation and imitation. Exp (i) attitudes towards work and success - do they emphasize hard work and material success? (ii) Roles and status - the way top management is addressed eg Mr Roberts or using title 'president' 'manager' (iii) Use of manners - exp 'How was your weekend?'

    • Word count: 1124
  2. Free essay

    Does the portrayal of thin models in fashion advertisements promote body consciousness amongst Singaporean teenage girls?

    In the present, according to Ford modeling agency, on of the biggest modeling agencies in fashion, the minimum height requirement now being 5 feet 9 inches tall as well as having specific measurements for their bust, waist and hips, all of which fall in the 'small' range. Their body also has to be well-toned and proportioned. Symmetrical features are also a must and models have to have a certain "look" that is currently in fashion as determined by the modeling industry.

    • Word count: 1494
  3. Chinese Architecture. This Essay shortly describes the ancient Chinese architecture with the main point on the Hall of Supreme Harmony.

    Also the religions, like Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, had an influence on the temple and altar architecture. Beside these two factors, the outside of China had a big influence as well. China exchanged for example building techniques with other countries. Types of Ancient Chinese Architecture All over China different types of architecture can be found. The Palace Architecture represents the quintessence of the architectural techniques and the esthetical aspirations of the epoch. Forbidden City in Beijing and the imperial Palace Shenyang, both built during the Ming and Qing dynasty. The Altar and Temple Architecture was built to worship heaven and earth, sun and moon, gods and spirits, ancestors and celebrities.

    • Word count: 1951
  4. Evidence for bipedal locomotion allows archaeologists and paleontologists to trace the evolution of the earliest humans. What other evidence is brought to bear on the matter?

    While most apes were becoming extinct, some were adapting to these changes in the environment. One of the species that was to adapt to these changes was to become our ancestor. Early hominids that branched off since the last common ancestor are identified on one of the following two criteria: 1) postorbital evidence of bipedality, or 2) dentition which resembles that of later humans rather than that of apes. Having said that, before 4 million years ago the story is not so clear-cut: although the journey from Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Ardipithecus ramidus does see a change in dentition, dentition which

    • Word count: 1903
  5. Intercultural Awareness My Experience in Morocco. I experienced Moroccan culture and the culture of Islam when I went to Morocco for a month. I was initially incredibly uncomfortable with how Moroccan people live.

    I experienced all of the four stages during my one month stay in Marrakesh, Morocco last year. Intercultural Awareness My Experience in Morocco I have had many intercultural counters where I have come face-to-face with the clear differences between English Culture and Islam. The most significant was when I experienced Moroccan culture, whose main religion is also Muslim, where I significantly felt a huge amount of Culture Shock, as their culture was so unfamiliar. Culture Shock is "anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse." (Ferraro, 2006, p.151.) Culture shock was first developed by Kalvero Oberg (1960).

    • Word count: 1952
  6. Presentation on Leslie White. In his new quest to understand why peoples behave the way they do he later enrolled in Louisiana State University as a student of psychology and sociology

    * He studied under Alexander Goldenweiser (a former student of Boas) o White learned Boasian methodologies and developed the characteristic emphasis on ethnology and antipathy for cultural evolutionism. o However, in later years White would grow to become a critic of Boas, bashing his ideology at every opportunity, * This was detrimental to his career and perhaps even the development of his own original ideas. Energy * Everything is the universe may be described in terms of energy. * Second Law of Thermodynamics - the universe is breaking down structurally and running down dynamically --> it is moving in the direction of lesser degrees of order.

    • Word count: 1385
  7. How is the theme of death portrayed in Antigone and The Outsider?

    By the use of word "most" she prioritizes her philos and the Gods above Creon. Antigone does not see herself as a criminal, and emphasizes that it is only Creon who will consider her a criminal. She states that she is "guilty of the crime of holy reverence"5. This highlights Antigone's morality, and at the same time works against Creon in the eyes of the audience. Antigone is initially depicted to have no fear of her own death and this is further demonstrated through her feeling that her death could be to her advantage.

    • Word count: 1697
  8. The Maasai Tribe of Africa. Gender superiority is the central figure of the Maasai culture as this way of life is what holds the culture together, preserving and preventing the tribe from becoming tainted. Maasai men and women are a semi- nomadic ethnic

    A girl's childhood is dominated by a strict avoidance, even a fear of her father and other elders. Girls are socialized to accept her subservience to her future husband. Furthmore, the most honorary role in the Maasai tribe, is having the title of a warrior. Becoming a warrior is the big dream of every young Maasai boy. The warriors are in charge of the society's security by protecting their cattle and their grazing lands. Often standing over six feet the Maasai warrior with beaded hair, red checked blanket (shuka) and balled club, looks both fierce and beautiful. A Massai can only become a warrior in stages, marked by hard and dangerous initiation rites.

    • Word count: 1747
  9. Zoroastrianism: The Oldest Religion in the World

    He controlled parts of Greece and Egypt along with the Middle East. Cyrus' son Cambyses who conquered Egypt in 525 BC continued to introduce Zoroastrianism into the world. Cambyses son, Darius the Great, reigned from 522 - 486 BC. Darius extended the Persian Empire the furthest, all the way up to Macedon in Greece. His Empire encompassed Asia Minor, parts of Greece, Egypt, Persia, Afghanistan, Northern Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Turkestan, parts of Russia and Pakistan. Cyrus and Darius were liberal and tolerant rulers, allowing their people to worship their own God, speak their own language and retain their own culture.

    • Word count: 1478
  10. The caste system in India has developed over many generations. Even today, the caste systems are strongly held. There are five main caste systems in India: Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, and Harijans. With in these caste systems, there are also many

    The final caste is Harijans and they are called the untouchables or Dalits. Even though the government is trying to get rid of and help the lower caste systems, they still exist in India. The Shudras and Harijans are in the lower level group and they were treated as slaves for the other upper three castes. The untouchables were also considered as almost nonexistent. Even though they were Hindus, no one gave priority to them and they were assigned to do all kind of dirty work, they were not allowed to public places like Temples(churches).

    • Word count: 1256
  11. This is a summary of Women, Men and Politeness by Janet Holmes (2006). Holmes discusses the gender differences in the context of conversational politeness.

    The analysis shows that, overall, the boys use more 'bald' disagreements than girls in the types of preferred responses. Girls use more 'modified' disagreements for example, instead of "no, that's stupid" it will be "I don't think it's a good idea. It is suggested by Brown, Levinson and Leech (1987, 1983) that the purpose of being polite is to increase areas of agreement and reduce disagreements. Stubbe's research has shown that girls often change or adopt a different approach to disagreement such as "modified" disagreements as mentioned above and it is used almost twice as often as compared to the boys.

    • Word count: 1140
  12. antropologia tarbajo de campo

    Por esto me vi forzado a cambiarme de ropa y hacerme pasar por cliente para poder establecer el tipo de relaci�n creado. �ticamente sent� que no estaba haciendo nada mal porque la informaci�n que estaba tomando de estos encuentros con los trabajadores de Carrefour no le har�a da�o a nadie y solo estaba pidiendo un servicio que se supone que todos los que entran a este establecimiento pueden utilizar, que es la ayuda de los trabajadores. Me vi obligado a pedirle ayuda a Antonio Jim�nez para que tomara fotos mientras yo interactuaba con los vendedores.

    • Word count: 1657
  13. Essay on Dulce et Decorum est

    This suggests that men are struggling with the weight of their bags. It highlights the point that they were bending their back over as they are so physically tired. 'Like beggars under sacks' is similes that explain the men have no dignity left. The second line 'Knock-kneed, coughing like hangs, we cursed through sludge' its slows and dulls down the tempo as Owen said 'sludge' which it means wet mud, as when he said 'coughing like hangs' that suggests they were an old women slowly stumbling through the thick mud. The third line 'haunting' is used as it was a feeling being natural as though the flares trying to seek out the soldiers.

    • Word count: 1208
  14. Trobrianders Chapter 5

    * When the marriage between two individuals is announced, the wife's parents bring cooked yams, followed by a large presentation of raw yams delivered by the wife's father and mother's brother. What happens in the "trial year" of a marriage? * The trial year is the first year of the marriage when the couple stay with the husband's family * The husband's mother cooks yams for the couple the entire year. Husband and wife eat yams together. What happens after the trial year?

    • Word count: 1239
  15. In Search of Respect Chapter 3 Handout

    * By hiring blood-related kin, Ray was able to build strong relationships and connections * Ray asked Primo to be his son's godfather (82) o Established a compadre relationships o A relationship deeper than the boss-worker relationship * Growing up with Ray, Gato was spared further injuries from stealing from Ray's Game Room o "That he was still alive with no broken bones was a testimony to his childhood friendship with Ray" (105) Division of Labour and Specialization Employees are divided into roles according to their area of expertise Owner-Ray * Obtained rights of the Game Room for $3000 * Ray was a "brilliant labor relations manager" (82)

    • Word count: 1279
  16. Frozen Cow Juice v. Your George Washingtons

    Coming in a close second, Breyer's has just a mere two calories above the leaders. Finishing fourth and fifth, respectively, Edy's with 35/oz and Giant with 38/oz. Now, with a whopping 63 calories per ounce, Haagen ~ Dazs comes in last place. To put the amount into perspective, the caloric equivalent of the 63 calories per ounce is a Burger King Whopper1. Moving on the next and last health related criterion, fat grams per ounce, we find a four way tie for first between the ice creams with Giant, Bloom, Breyer's, and Edy's all with just 2 fat grams per ounce.

    • Word count: 1209
  17. Evaluation of Cultural, Social and Technological Diffusion in the Modern World

    One of the biggest indicators of diffusion from Europe and America (the 'Western' cultures) are the African Political Leaders. Modern African Politicians are becoming valued more for their leadership and education rather than their backgrounds, as was the case in the time when Africa was rife with ethnic tensions and revolutions. The King of Ghana, for example, is a native from Kumasi, Ghana, but he is also an Oxford Graduate, a member of the Inns of Court in London, and a devout Catholic.

    • Word count: 1599
  18. Laptop vs. Desktop: Which is right for university students

    How much money are you willing to spend? 5. What do you want for your money- power or convenience? Consider answers to each of the questions, it might be easier for them to make a decision. My critical comparison will access which of these choices would be best for the needs of university students. Based on the questions I mentioned above, I am going to look at the advantages and disadvantages of both laptops and desktops from four different areas. There are: 1. Performances; 2. Portability; 3. Size and space; 4. Price. Performances Generally speaking, in terms of performance, both laptops and desktops handle almost any computer task well.

    • Word count: 1080
  19. My Korean culture is definitely a paradigm that opens my mind to many perspectives, including ones that highly contrast traditional American values or beliefs.

    Only through this method can we, as humans, come to greater understanding of ourselves. The more paradigms one has, the more one is able to look at life through different perspectives. My Korean culture is definitely a paradigm that opens my mind to many perspectives, including ones that highly contrast traditional American values or beliefs. When my American friend once heard about a student in Korea who became blind in one eye after her teacher threw a book at her face, I was certainly disgraced, but I also was more understanding of the event than my friend was.

    • Word count: 1249
  20. The prevalence of memes in Indian Culture

    But it is not the case with memes. The meme of a churel today in India has not lost its hold on people. In different parts of India churel is known by different names. It shows the evolution of the meme in as scientific a manner as the genetic evolution. In east India and west India3, it is believed that a churel is a witch that entices the young children, and devours them in a lonely corner of the village.

    • Word count: 1642
  21. Pramoedya Ananta Toers 1981 "This Earth of Mankind" regards the unjust colonial rule of the Dutch East Indies through the segregation of social groups between the Dutch aristocrats, Mixed Bloods, and Natives.

    Her greater purpose, to challenge societal degradation of the Native class, is articulated in Toer?s message. As he discloses, ?at the beginning of all growth, everything imitates? he suggests that the Indonesian natives should uproot from their inferiority and learn from modern teachings as an asset to declare independence, rather than be domineered by European colonization (Toer 208). Toer highlights the significance of education?as one of the only markers of esteem?in Natives? pursuit of freedom. Nyai Ontorosoh?s behavior does not abide with society?s expectation of the Natives.

    • Word count: 1160
  22. Discussion of the article "Home of the Roma Kings", in the September 2012 issue of National Geographic discusses the lifestyle of wealthy modern-age gypsies from Romania

    They also do not exemplify moderation or modesty as they live in extensively large houses with many unlived in rooms. Visigoth values are exemplified in the article, Home of the Roma Kings. The article suggests that these modern day gypsies uphold the Visigoth values of not keeping traditions though not being travelers, only being interested in one?s own affairs through spending lots of money on selfish objects, and not believing in moderation through building excessively large mansions. The Visigoth value of not keeping traditions is exemplified by the wealthy Roma, for they are not travelers as their previous generation was.

    • Word count: 1344
  23. Using "Ebonics" in American Schools. Schools should use only standard English. Ebonics will only hinder students from succeeding in college

    If you start with Ebonics, why not teach Spanglish, Cajun, Texan, surfer talk and Geek speak, each of which has its own cultural baggage and adds as much to the expanding English dictionary as hip-hop. In order for language to work, it has to evolve (and that means introducing new words and new meanings to existing words), but the base code should remain as tight as possible. All this to say that I don't think it's a good idea to teach Ebonics.

    • Word count: 1243
  24. I will argue that Canada should continue to develop some regulations to protect its cultural industries. It is extremely important for a nation to promote and preserve its own culture

    Therefore, despite the protections, we need to further foster and protect at least some semblance of the original identity. The concept of continentalism, which is the sharing of a continent between more then one nation, may be very detrimental to our ongoing struggle to broadcasting our culture but we need to take a stand. (Hiller 237). The biggest factor in continuing to develop regulations to protect Canada?s cultural industries is globalization (Pg.289) and the cultural nationalism in Canada that wants protection for Canadian content (Hiller 305). Continentalism is a major contributing factor because it can be very threatening for the less powerful country.

    • Word count: 1964
  25. Anthropology IA. To what extent do socio-cultural aspects, such as language and methods of communication, exemplify the ways in which families/ friends and departing/arriving passengers experience travel and airports?

    My fieldwork, for the most part, will consist of observing some cultural/social aspects such as language and communication (non-participant observation) and interviewing passengers and people who work in the airport terminal and secondly, just first-hand observation. The purpose of this is to gain information and try to measure particular values/customs that inform certain behaviours of modern travelers? perceptions of travel and experience of the airport. My research question revolves around the socio-cultural aspects of the airport; however it is split into two parts, one for my first-hand observation, and one for my interviews (participant).

    • Word count: 1441
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Why do some tribes have coming of age ceremonies? Why is dance more important in some cultures than others? IB Anthropology is the comparative study of human cultures and societies and gives the student a great insight into a broad range of communities around the world and the ideas and themes by which they can be understood.

During the course you'll be covering such issues as war, inequality, human rights and poverty, amongst many others. You'll be looking at how societies develop and change and how things like family and kinship, belief systems and tradition affect cultures and the way they relate with other cultural systems. As a social science, Anthropology also involves the collection and analysis of data and its interpretation and you'll spend time learning how to develop your own experimental and observational skills. Assessment is done both internally and externally and you'll need to hone your examination skills. One paper is based on an unseen text which will require you to apply the theories and principles you have learnt. Marked by Teachers has a wealth of essay answers for IB Anthropology which will help you understand how good answers are planned and written.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and contrast how three poets explore the theme of childhood.

    "In conclusion the three poets presented the childhood all in a very different situation way, but the same key point. All of them had some related features as well as contrasting. The language has relate structure of the use of comparisons in piano and my parents kept me from children who were rough while fanthorpe's language is completely contrast to the other two poems. By Eve"

  • Outline and evaluate cross-cultural studies of gender role.

    "In conclusion, cross cultural studies help us to establish whether nature or nurture has the greater influence over gender roles. Both Mead and Young's studies imply that nurture and social influences have a greater influence on gender roles, however evidence from William and Best lies on the nature side of the debate by indicating that our biology is more dominant."

  • Discuss Free Speech in China Compared to the UK

    "To conclude, the aforementioned points outline the degree to which I believe people in China have freedom of speech. I believe that the internet and the media are the greatest limitations to the free speech of Chinese people, and comparatively to the UK, Chinese people have far less freedom of speech. However, as I have also outlined, the impact that this has on freedom of speech is not as great as it may appear; the affects are mainly felt by metropolitan people. There are still many people in China that do not have access to the internet, media legislation only affects a small, working minority, and comparatively other countries have not seen political or social stability through executing their freedom of speech. In any case, freedom of speech is limited in all countries, but in a much more subtle way. The Chinese Communist Party are trying to stabilize their country and keep the citizens happy which, I believe, has taken place. For these reasons I have spoken about in my short discussion, I believe that the breakdown of freedom of speech, although existing, only impacts particular segments of society at a time and overall consequences have been positive; it would be false to say that people in China today have no freedom of speech."

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