• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

8.1 - Cell Respiration

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

8.1 - Cell Respiration 8.1.1 - State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element, whereas reduction involves a gain of electrons; and that oxidation frequently involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen, whereas reduction frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen Oxidation Reduction Lose electrons Gain electrons Gain oxygen Lose oxygen Lose hydrogen Gain hydrogen In the equation above, the glucose molecule is oxidised into CO2. The hydrogen atoms in the molecule are removed, and some of the oxygen atoms from the O2 are added. The oxygen molecules are reduced to form the H2O molecules. Oxygen atoms are removed [separated], and then hydrogen atoms from the glucose molecule are added. The reaction above shows ADP + Pi being converted into ATP. The ADP molecule is oxidised. In the reverse, when ATP is converted back into ADP, the ATP is reduced. 8.1.2 - Outline the process of glycosis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. ...read more.

Middle

All the enzymes necessary for these reactions are located here. The matrix contains enzymes and metabolites. The inner membrane folds in to form cristae, maximising the surface area. 8.1.4 - Explain aerobic respiration, including the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, the role NADH + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen Link Reaction Once the pyruvate has diffused through the membrane of the mitochondrion, it is metabolised. The reaction occurs in the matrix. The pyruvate has one carbon atom removed to form CO2 through decarboxylation. It is also oxidised through the removal of oxygen. Combined, this is referred to as oxidative decarboxylation. One of the products is an acetyl group, which joins to the coenzyme A [CoA] in the link reaction to form acetyl CoA. It is called the link reaction because it essentially 'connects' glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. Krebs Cycle This is also called the citric acid cycle. After the link reaction, the acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate [OAA], with the result of CoA and citrate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Electron carrier proteins along the mitochondrial wall oxidise the reduced coenzymes. The energy from this is then used to pump the protons into the membrane space. The protons accumulate in the space to form a gradient in hydrogen ion concentration and a lower pH. Potential energy is stored, and the ions will eventually flow back into the matrix through the channels in ATP synthase enzymes. The flow of protons causes ATP synthesis to occur. 8.1.6 - Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondrion and its function Structure Function external double membrane the membrane is permanently permeable to pyruvate, O2, CO2 and NAD/ NADH + H+ matrix creates an isolated space in which the enzymes of the link reaction and the Krebs cycle occur inner membrane this folds in to form the cristae, increasing the surface area for the electron transfer system. This increases the opportunity for ATP synthesis. the membrane is also impermeable to H+ ions, creating a concentration gradient between the matrix and the inter-membrane space inter-membrane space this is a small space where H+ ions can accumulate to facilitate phosphorylation ?? ?? ?? ?? http://ibscrewed4biology.blogspot.com/ ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Roles of ATP

    3 star(s)

    skeletal muscle contractions, but also cardiac muscles, responsible for blood transport and the smooth muscle, used to contract blood vessels as well as the gastrointestinal tract, which moves our food along our intestines. ATP is also used on a cellular level, in bacteria it is used for the movement of flagella so the cells can move about.

  2. IB biology Respiration IA

    of increment one is significantly different from the average time taken to change the color of BTB of increment three. Suggesting that if yet another increment of time was added it would produce even faster color changes of BTB. Although the increased rate of CO2 production does not immediately decrease

  1. Investigating an enzyme-controlled reaction: catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration

    It appears that at this "maximum level", increasing the enzyme concentration had little effect and other factors such as substrate concentration were limiting the reaction and prevented any further increases in the rate of reaction.

  2. Lung Capacity Fitness Level

    -1.06 / 1.15 2. -1.10 / 1.52 3. -1.02 / 1.83 = 2.21 = 2.62 = 2.85 2 15 / 55kg / 170cm 20.11 / ESL 2 / 11:57am 18 Ex low 1. -1.12 / 2.02 2. -1.02 / 1.60 3. -1.02 / 1.15 = 3.14 = 2.62 = 2.17 3 15 / 55kg / 175cm 20.11 / ESL 1 / 12:13pm 16 Ex low 1.

  1. Biology Cell biology

    (Tray P 2008) 1.1.4 Investigating variables Table 1- Practical variables Type of variable Identified variable Independent The temperature of the solutions Dependent How long it takes for hydrolysis to be completed Controlled Air temperature Controlled Container for solutions Controlled Apparatus used for measuring solutions Controlled Enzymes and chemicals used.

  2. Effect of Detergent on Membrane Permeability

    This is also the case when we stirred and removed the beet from the wells. This causes the period in which each piece of beet is left in the solution to be different. This may cause some beet to have longer or shorter time for their membrane to be penetrated than others.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Increasing Exercise in Aerobic Respiration

    The chemical equation for the aerobic respiration is shown below: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ï 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy Glucose + Oxygen ï Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy The biggest amount of CO2 produced was observed after two minutes of exercise.

  2. What is the effect of pH levels on the net production, given by the ...

    Control Group: Chlorella pyrenoidosa in pH 8 buffer solution. Experimental Groups: Chlorella pyrenoidosa in pH 6,7,9,and 10 buffer solutions. Materials: 25 BOD, large bottles (closed using black cap) capable of holding up to 150 mL of liquid Graduated cylinder for measuring pH buffer solution quantities and Chlorella pyrenoidosa sample quantities (uncertainty +/- 1mL)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work