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8.1 - Cell Respiration

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8.1 - Cell Respiration 8.1.1 - State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element, whereas reduction involves a gain of electrons; and that oxidation frequently involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen, whereas reduction frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen Oxidation Reduction Lose electrons Gain electrons Gain oxygen Lose oxygen Lose hydrogen Gain hydrogen In the equation above, the glucose molecule is oxidised into CO2. The hydrogen atoms in the molecule are removed, and some of the oxygen atoms from the O2 are added. The oxygen molecules are reduced to form the H2O molecules. Oxygen atoms are removed [separated], and then hydrogen atoms from the glucose molecule are added. The reaction above shows ADP + Pi being converted into ATP. The ADP molecule is oxidised. In the reverse, when ATP is converted back into ADP, the ATP is reduced. 8.1.2 - Outline the process of glycosis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. ...read more.


All the enzymes necessary for these reactions are located here. The matrix contains enzymes and metabolites. The inner membrane folds in to form cristae, maximising the surface area. 8.1.4 - Explain aerobic respiration, including the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, the role NADH + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen Link Reaction Once the pyruvate has diffused through the membrane of the mitochondrion, it is metabolised. The reaction occurs in the matrix. The pyruvate has one carbon atom removed to form CO2 through decarboxylation. It is also oxidised through the removal of oxygen. Combined, this is referred to as oxidative decarboxylation. One of the products is an acetyl group, which joins to the coenzyme A [CoA] in the link reaction to form acetyl CoA. It is called the link reaction because it essentially 'connects' glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. Krebs Cycle This is also called the citric acid cycle. After the link reaction, the acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate [OAA], with the result of CoA and citrate. ...read more.


Electron carrier proteins along the mitochondrial wall oxidise the reduced coenzymes. The energy from this is then used to pump the protons into the membrane space. The protons accumulate in the space to form a gradient in hydrogen ion concentration and a lower pH. Potential energy is stored, and the ions will eventually flow back into the matrix through the channels in ATP synthase enzymes. The flow of protons causes ATP synthesis to occur. 8.1.6 - Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondrion and its function Structure Function external double membrane the membrane is permanently permeable to pyruvate, O2, CO2 and NAD/ NADH + H+ matrix creates an isolated space in which the enzymes of the link reaction and the Krebs cycle occur inner membrane this folds in to form the cristae, increasing the surface area for the electron transfer system. This increases the opportunity for ATP synthesis. the membrane is also impermeable to H+ ions, creating a concentration gradient between the matrix and the inter-membrane space inter-membrane space this is a small space where H+ ions can accumulate to facilitate phosphorylation ?? ?? ?? ?? http://ibscrewed4biology.blogspot.com/ ...read more.

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