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# International Baccalaureate: Biology

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1. ## Biology Heart Rate Lab. What are the effects of decreasing the amount of water intake on human heart rate?

Data Collection and Processing Raw Data Tables Table 1. Trial 1 of heart rate measured for a duration of 3 minutes after different amounts of water consumption. Amount of Water Consumed (mL � 10mL) Number of Heart Beats (beats � 2 beats) 100 237 500 219 1000 204 1500 195 2000 192 Table 2. Trial 2 of heart rate measured for a duration of 3 minutes after different amounts of water consumption. Amount of Water Consumed (mL � 10mL) Number of Heart Beats (beats � 2 beats) 100 249 500 225 1000 216 1500 234 2000 219 Table 3.

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2. ## Yeast Investigation

(Figure 2) Research Question: What is the effect on the volume of carbon dioxide produced, by 8 ml of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) respiring with sucrose solution, when the sucrose solution varies in concentration such that the yeast respires with 7 ml of 60, 80, and 100% one molar sucrose solution? Variables: Independent: Concentration of sucrose solution. This will be varied by the following method: 1. Add 100 ml of distilled water into a conical flask. 2. Slowly dissolve 34.23 grams of sucrose in it to make the 1 molar solution.

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3. ## Biology Lan - factors affecting enzyme activity

- Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) - Forceps - Trough - Graduated cylinder - beakers (5) - test tubes (5) - thermometer (5) - clock - tube with rubber stopper - Hot plate - Ice cubes Procedure: All the materials were gathered to start the experiment. All the beakers were filled up with water in order to adjust the temperature. Catalase was filled into five tubes and the trough and the graduated cylinder were filled up with water to prepare for the experiment. Five thermometers were put into each beaker to keep track of the temperature.

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4. ## How pH effects enzyme Catalase in potato cells

Factors that influence the catalytic activity of enzymes and how to control them: 1. Temperature is known to have the most influence on catalytic activities. As temperature rises, more energy is transferred to the molecules, giving them more kinetic energy, increasing the chance of successful collision1, and so influencing the rate. However, too high temperature can cause too much energy and the molecules will be damaged by the vibration. To prevent this factor influencing the data, the experiment will be taken in the same environment (biology laboratory). Due to the limited time and equipment, this factor cannot be entirely controlled, so I do expect there to be slight differences in temperature at different times of experimentation.

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5. ## Evaluating the healthiness of the Salt River by the biological organisms and chemistry present in the river

* Petri Dishes (3 per group, 5 groups, total of 15) * Tweezers (1 per group, total of 5) * Microscope (1 per group, total of 5) with slides * Parafilm * Water (tap) * Macro invertebrate identification sheets: Internet access * Chemistry results Methods: 1. Once at the Salt River (or any body of water), set up five distinct stations where the water is flowing, stagnant, deep and shallow 2. Create 5 groups with 2-3 people per group; Each person should already be in their swimming attire and have their boots/sandals on 3.

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6. ## Lion King-The Ecological study

These floodplain are formed by meander and they are mainly made of unconsolidated sediments, the stream sand, gravel, loam, silt, and/or clay, and are often important aquifers There is water almost everywhere which makes it an ideal home to many herbivores as trees depend mainly on water and soil nutrient. Thus it attracts opportunistic predator such as bird, snakes, to move in and enrich the ecosystem there. The third biome is savanna. It is a grassland ecosystem where trees does not stay closely to each other thus allow the Sun to reach the ground level, encouraging the growth of grass and many plants that are short and small.

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7. ## Simpson Diversity Lab

Independent/Manipulated - No variable in this activity was changed, since it was mere collection of data with controlled and uncontrolled factors. - Biodiversity of species in both fields is the independent variable. Controlled (Fixed) - Quadrat area (used two rulers as boundaries marking the specific length and width of the quadrat, keeping it 1m2. Uncontrolled - number of plant species present / population of each species. Materials: - 2 rulers to mark both length and width - 1 camera - 2 different fields - Digital data analysis software, Logger Pro Procedure: Refer to the instruction sheet.

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8. ## Plant Lab. What effect does the amount of light have on the growth of a bean plant measured by the height of the bean plant?

In a plant growing in the dark the chlorophyll will slowly be destroyed causing them to use their food reserves. Once the reserves have been used the plant will die. This is what happens in plants that are not grown in sunlight. Etiolating is a phenomenon that occurs in plants not being grown in sunlight, where the stem of the plant rapidly elongates to increase the probability of the plant finding light. In order to carry out this etiolation the plant must use its food reserves, so if the plant does not find light having used these reserves, it will die seen there is no useable energy for the cells of the plant to grow.

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9. ## What effect will a change in temperature of hydrogen peroxide (C) have on the activity of the enzyme Catalase in potatoes measured by the height of the bubbles created by the reaction in a test tube?

The exact formula of this breakdown is shown here. In a catabolic reaction, the enzyme molecule can bind with more molecules of substrate. Each enzyme may multiple times. The Substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme. The active site splits the substrate molecule into smaller molecules. The substrate molecule can now reacts to form the product of two smaller molecules, which exit the active site. Temperature affects the activity of enzymes since an increase temperature speeds up the movement of substrate molecules, so that when they collide with the enzyme they have more energy and are more likely to bind with the active site speeding up the reaction more.

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10. ## Virtual Genetic Lab

Parents: Blue Male (1) x Blue Female (1) gave offspring: Cage 2: 15 Blue Males; 22 Blue Females. Parents: Pink Male (1) x Pink Female (1) gave offspring: Cage 3: 19 Pink Males; 19 Pink Females. Parents: Blue Male (1) x Pink Female (1) gave offspring: Cage 4: 14 Blue Males; 11 Blue Females. Parents: Pink Male (1) x Blue Female (1) gave offspring: Cage 5: 3 Blue Males; 3 Blue Females 9 Pink Males; 5 Pink Females. Parents: Blue Male (2) x Pink Female (3) gave offspring: Cage 6: 16 Blue Males; 17 Blue Females. Parents: Pink Male (5)

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11. ## Catalase practical

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12. ## Bioassay

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13. ## Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis Lab

room's lights will stay on, and I will include this in the measurement of light using a lux meter), time allowed for plant to photosynthesize between trials (I will let the plant sit for 1 minute under the intensity of the light I am testing and then commence counting bubbles every 30 seconds for 3 consecutive trials) Hypothesis: I expect that, at low light intensities, the rate of photosynthesis will be slower than the rate of photosynthesis at higher light intensities because the chlorophyll in the elodea is absorbing less light, so fewer bubbles will be produced, compared to higher intensities.

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14. ## Hill Reaction Lab

This is the photosynthesis factor which behaviour is investigated. Dependant variable: the rate of photosynthesis, id est the speed of the bubble which is affected by the excess by the waste product, oxygen. This is the best way to have a good estimation of the rate of photosynthesis, which we are trying to establish a relationship with light intensity. Controlled variable: Local and ambient temperature (of the room), the experiment was done in the same room with the school air conditioning system keeping the room at a constant temperature.

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15. ## Affect of temperature on enzyme peroxidase

thus increasing the rate of reaction, or the enzyme activity.1 Also, the collisions between substrate and active site happen more frequently at higher temperatures due to faster molecular motion, and this also results in increase in enzyme activity.2 However if the temperature of the enzyme peroxidase increases beyond the optimum temperature of the enzymes, then the rate of reaction or the enzyme activity will dramatically decrease, which will be indicated by a longer time in seconds taken for the red water to reach the marked distance.

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16. ## Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties

Since proteins are made up of amino acids, and amino acids react with Biuret reagent, one of our solutions which would be a protein will turn either pink or violet depending on the complexity and concentration of the protein. (MadSci Network). Benedict's solution is a chemical reagent used to identify monosaccharides (simplest form of carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars). It is prepared from sodium carbonate, sodium citrate and copper (II) sulfate. The solution changes its color according to the concentration of monosaccharides present.

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17. ## GM Foods

Genetically Modified Foods can cause environmental hazards, human health risks and economic concerns. The process in which food is genetically modified is entirely based on science. This process involves molecular biology and the insertion of a gene or DNA of one organism into another. There are three traditional ways in which scientists genetically modify foods. The first method of Genetic Modification is 'Selecting For Variability'. In this method, scientists choose a crop that has been naturally produced, extract the genes from this crop and insert it into other crops in order to duplicate the original crops features.

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18. ## Vitamin C Lab

This experiment will study temperature, an abiotic factor, on how it affects Vitamin C by calculating its concentration in lemon juice by titrating lemon juice against dichlorophenolindolephonol (DCPIP) and see how much DCPIP is needed to decolourise a controlled amount of lemon juice (2cm3). Aim Design a quantifiable investigation to look at the effect of at least one abiotic factor - in this case temperature - on Vitamin C. Hypothesis I think that as the temperature increases, the Vitamin C concentration within the lemon juice will decrease.

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19. ## COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION LAB ON LICHENS

Therefore, the percentage coverage of lichen on the trees is going to be higher in an area with sunlight compared to a shaded area. Also the direction of the tree (North, East, West or South) affects in the growth of lichen. Apparatus: * Meter rule (x1) * Compass (to find the north direction) (x1) * Mini transparent quadrat with marked squares (x1) * Pencil / pen * Paper * Calculator Method for controlling variables: * The investigation should take place in two different areas, one which has trees growing in a sunny area and another one which has trees growing in shaded area and it should not be carried out elsewhere from these two selected area.

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20. ## Factors affecting the activity of an enzyme

Research question: If there is a specific range of temperature in which enzymes function, this can be measured by the thickness of layer of foam and bubbles produced by the reaction between catalase in potato and hydrogen peroxide (building on experience of previous experiment). This can be done as temperature is altered and thereby deduce the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. Aim: To investigate the effects of varying temperature on the rate of enzyme activity in potato cells by measuring the amount of foam and bubbles produced as this implies the occurrence of enzyme activity.

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21. ## Nutrition Report

And all of these essential things are found while our alimentation and respiration. Our alimentation is basically based on three different groups of food, and these three groups compose the right/perfect diet. The first one is the energetic, which is made from carbohydrates and fats. The second one is the constructor, which is the proteins and the last one is the regulator, which are the vitamins and minerals. Macroninutrients are carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which are needed in bulk. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals, which are only needed a small quantities. Fibre and water are not digested but are also necessary for a healthy diet.

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22. ## Investigating the rate of Enzyme Activity when Catalase is added in a hydrogen peroxide solution

This is because random collision between substrate and active site happen more frequently with higher substrate concentrations. Rate of Velocity V = V(max) * Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Km * (Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide) Dependent and Independent Variables Dependent (in method referred as DP) * The volume of homogenelized liver ( cm3) Independent (in method referred as IV) * Concentration of different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solutions * (rate of enzyme activity) Controlled (in method referred as CV) * Volume of the substrate of Hydrogen Peroxide in each tube (5 cm3)

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23. ## Genetically Modified Organisms Essay

With the world?s population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 demand for critical resources such as proteins continue to exceed supplies. Scientists are close to developing and engineering a genetically modified salmon. Genetically Modified organisms (GM or genetically modified organisms) are organisms or plants with altered DNA, giving them greater resistance to pesticides and herbicides and improved nutritional content. GM foods were originally intended to reduce the diseases and pesticides on crops, leading to a larger output of crops for a cheaper price.

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24. ## Investigating the Effects of Salt on Seed Germination

The dependent variable (the variable being measured): The dependent variable is going to be the percentage of seeds that germinate over one week in each petri dish/NaCl solution. We will count the total number of seeds in each petri dish and after one week; count the number of seeds that germinated so that we can calculate a percentage. The control variables (the variables kept the same): The other variables, which we need to keep constant, are: * The same number of seeds used for each petri dish (10 seeds).

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25. ## How does changing the temperature of green beans affect the activity of the peroxidase enzyme as measured by the volume of oxygen gas produced in 120 seconds?

Temperature of green beans (°C) Rate of oxygen gas produced in 120 seconds (mL s-1) Trials Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 3 0.13 0.092 0.075 0.092 0.1 13 0.21 0.23 0.18 0.18 0.2 30 0.33 0.3 0.39 0.37 0.35 60 0.16 0.13 0.17 0.092 0.10 80 0 0.058 0.017 0 0.0083 Key Colour used to indicate the example calculation of rate Colour used to indicate the data used to calculate example mean Colour used to indicate the data used to calculate example standard deviation Processed Data table 2 showing how changing the temperature of green

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