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International Baccalaureate: Biology

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  1. How does the salinity of water affect the germination of mung been seeds as measured by the number of seeds that successfully germinate?

    * When placing the seeds in the petri dish their distribution was unequal. * The filter paper did not fit the petri dish perfectly causing some bubbles to form. * The thickness of the cotton wool was uneven * 4 days after exposure to the solution the seeds gave of an unpleasant odour. * The testa of the seed had began to crack when we checked our seeds on day 4. * On the 10th day there was mould present in the 0.0 petri dishes Processed Data Table 1 showing the effect changing the salinity of water added to ten ungerminated Vigna radiate (mung bean)

    • Word count: 2947
  2. Biology Internal Assessment - investigate whether the Window and Notching caterpillar share the same ecological niche.

    * Sometimes notches didn?t go to the very end of leaves. * Windows were very long and didn?t go completely through the leaf. * The cabbage tree leaves taper off significantly. * The midrib is difficult to see. * There were some yellow spots on the leaves. Processed Data Table showing the mean distance from the midrib of the cabbage tree leaf to the nearest point of the feeding site (mm) of 50 samples from notched and window shaped feeding sites on cabbage tree leaves and the standard deviation.

    • Word count: 2843
  3. How does mowing or not mowing effect the petiole heights of white clover as measured by the height of the petiole of individual clover heights on a School field?

    Mean (cm) Standard Deviation Unmown 103 63 Mown 42 27 Note: Processed data was put to the same number of decimal places as raw data Calculations: Mean From: http://easycalculation.com/statistics/standard-deviation.php Standard deviation From: http://easycalculation.com/statistics/standard-deviation.php T Test A T Test has been conducted to determine whether there is a marked difference in the heights of white clover petioles in mown and unmown areas, Null hypothesis: there is no significant statistical difference between the heights of petioles of white clover in unmown and mown areas.

    • Word count: 1870
  4. How does changing the percentage of sucrose added to yeast affect the rate of respiration of yeast as measured by the height of gas bubbles (froth) ?

    produced by the yeast above the yeast-sucrose suspension in 360 seconds. Percentage of sucrose added to the yeast (%) Rate of respiration of yeast as measured by the rate of gas bubbles (froth) produced by the yeast above the yeast-sucrose suspension in 360 seconds (mm/s) Trials 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 5 0.044 0.067 0.11 0.044 0.047 - 10 0.056 0.058 0.067 0.053 0.050 - 15 0.056 0.047 0.053 0.050 0.056 - 20 0.047 0.0083 0.047 0.039 0.044 0.044 Key Colour used to indicate the example calculation of rate Colour used to

    • Word count: 3428
  5. Use of stem cells to treat Stargardts disease and one other named condition.

    These retinal cells can then be injected into the retina of people with Stargardt's macular dystrophy. The retinal cells attach to the retina and become functional. Central vision improves as a result of more functional retinal cells. The future: This treatment is still in at the stage of limited clinical trials, but will likely be in usage in the future. Leukaemia: The problem: Leukaemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It usually begins in the bone marrow, resulting in abnormally high levels of poorly-functioning white blood cells. The treatment: Leukaemia can be treated with bone marrow transplant.

    • Word count: 606
  6. An experiment to show the water potential of potato cells

    As the concentration of sucrose increases the difference in mass and length of potato will increase since sucrose is a hypertonic solution which means that it has a higher amount of particles dissolved in the solution, while a hypotonic solution such as water where there is fewer particles dissolved. I predict that for the molarity level of 0 and 0.2 the potato core was going to swell, making the condition the cores were in hypotonic. When the molarity turned into 0.4 I said that the core would stay the same and therefore be isotonic.

    • Word count: 1494
  7. Biology Internal Assessment. How does exercise affect breathing rate?

    + After light exercise, breathing rate will increase slightly because during light exercises, small amount of lactic acid is generated and it needs to be broken down into energy. + After heavy exercise, breathing rate will increase sharply because during vigorous exercises, lung and heart are unable to get enough oxygen to muscle quickly enough, a large amount of lactic acid is generated and as a result the breathing rate must increase to get more oxygen in order to break down lactic acid into energy and stop causing cramp due to lactic acid.

    • Word count: 758
  8. An Essay Examining the Genetic Modification of Crops

    While genetic manipulation of foods can be drawn throughout history, GMO have been utilised in just the last decades. In the 1980?s, the discovery that specific DNA could be moved from one organism to another became the basis of the GM process. This was improved further in the 2000?s, when the modification process has been introduced into nutrients to augment food. Today the GM process is developing in the entire world. The developments of genetic modification have been created by purely economic consideration. This is because this technology permits to increase food production, lower food prices, and improve food quality.

    • Word count: 1106
  9. A study of the PH levels of different types of soap

    Materials required: 30*2 Beakers, Water, 30 Different brands of Soap, Blade (for cutting soap) and a weighing scale. Data Collection and Processing: Collection of Raw Data Table 1: Brand Weight (gm) Price(INR) Ph of beaker with water Ph of beaker with water+soap Yardley London (Rose) 100 34 7.20 7.79 Cinthol 120 24 7.07 7.84 Dove 75 33 6.99 5.50 Pears 125 40 6.95 7.43 Hamam 100 18 7.28 7.69 Mysore Sandal (gold) 115 50 6.92 7.50 Yardley London Sandalwood 100 34 6.97 7.78 Santoor 75 20 7.01 5.13 Fiama D wills 100 40 7.15 7.40 Nivea crème Soft 300 81 7.11 8.05 Nomarks 113 25 6.75 7.67 Charm and Glow 68 10 7.01 7.57

    • Word count: 760
  10. A study of the soil percolation rates of various soil samples

    of soil sample B was left to dry for five days. Then it was put into the funnel. 10 ml water was poured into the funnel fitted with a filter paper to check the amount of water that percolates through the soil into the beaker. We wait for one minute for the water to percolate. Through the funnel Table No.2 Volume of water collected in the measuring cylinder: S. No. Volume ml (0.5 ml) 1 2.5ml 2 2.7ml 3 2.6ml 4 3.2ml 5 2.8 ml 6 3.8 ml 7 4.1 ml 8 3.6 ml 9 3.0 ml 10 2.8 ml 11 3.4 ml 12 3.2 ml 13 1.5 ml 14 2.3 ml 15 2.4 ml Qualitative data: Soil Sample A: Light brownish in colour, Coarse in texture compared to Soil sample B.

    • Word count: 1228
  11. What is the effect of different concentration of salt solution on the rate of osmosis in solanum tuberosum (potato)?

    When the salt solution becomes more concentrated, more water would move out from the potato by osmosis. Variables and Fair Testing: Independent Variable Dependent Variables Control Variables Mass of potato Salt concentration 1. Time duration 1. Temperature 1. Amount of salt solution 1. Size of potato samples 1. The control variables are kept constant to ensure a fair test. I will also use a pure water solution as a control in this experiment. Apparatus: 1. 5 beakers of 500ml 2. Potatoes 3. Electronic scale to 2 d.p. 4. Distilled water 5. Cutting board 6. Ruler 7. Stopwatch 8.

    • Word count: 577
  12. "Genome" by Matt Ridley review

    The largest chromosome of the 23 is labeled as chromosome 1. This chromosome, along with the rest, has arms. On the long arm of chromosome 1, we find a code. This code contains 120 letters of the 4 genomes: A, C, G, and T written in a paragraph to from a single gene. The thing that makes this gene so special is that it is constantly being duplicated into what is referred to as RNA. Then, RNA translates DNA into proteins.

    • Word count: 9079
  13. The Light Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis

    As a result, this light is reflected by the plant, showing its green color. Another feature of the above graph is the inclusion of several pigments in the typical autotroph. Organisms that undergo photosynthesis contain a variety of colored pigments, which are organized on membranes within chloroplasts. These pigments include Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and various carotenoids. Cholorophyll a is considered a primary pigments, while chlorophyll b and other light-absorbing carotenoids are referred to as accessory pigments. These accessory pigments serve mainly to broaden the spectra of absorbable light. Photosynthetic organisms lose very little of this light energy in the form of heat.

    • Word count: 1328
  14. An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise.

    Uncontrolled variables: The speed at which the participants bike at on the spinning bike. The weight of the participants. Amount of exercise participants have done prior to experiment The height of the participants. The gender of the participants. Apparatus Consent form[1] Spirometer (cubic centimeter, /cm3) Stopwatch (seconds 10 disposable mouthpieces Spinning bike 10 participants were chosen to take part in the experiment (age 18-19). Method 1. Hand out consent form and ask participant to sign. 2. Put mouthpiece into hose opening of the spirometer. 3. Make sure the indicator of the spirometer is set on 0 by adjusting the indicator.

    • Word count: 2101
  15. Plan for an experiment - How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?

    For most plant enzymes, the optimum temperature is around 25 degrees C [http://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolleges.co.uk/Secondary/Science/IGCSE/HeinemannIGCSEBiologyChemistryPhysics/Samples/Biology/HeinemannIGCSE_Biology_chapter3.pdf]. When temperature denatures enzymes, the causes vibrations within the enzyme that ends up destroying the shape of the active site by breaking the hydrogen bonds in the enzyme, which would stop it from being able to function properly as it can no longer fit the specific substrate required. This would slow down the rate of photosynthesis. On the other end of the spectrum, if the temperature is too low, enzyme activity would decrease as there?s a decrease in collisions between enzymes and substrates because they have little to no kinetic energy, which would also slow down the rate of photosynthesis.

    • Word count: 1865
  16. Investigating The Effect Of Temperature On The Respiration Of Yeast

    The same applies from 20°C to 30°C and from 30°C to 40°C, with 65.3% and 101% increases in rate of respiration respectively. This increased in rate of respiration is due to the increased kinetic energy within the glucose-yeast solution. With more kinetic energy in the molecules, cellular reactions are carried out with more successful collisions (molecules joining with the enzyme’s active site) at a more frequent rate, which increases the rate of reaction, increasing the rate of respiration. This is also reflected by the positive gradient of the graph.

    • Word count: 1040
  17. What is the effect of increasing pH concentration (pH 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) on the germination and growth of mustard seeds?

    Keep the test tubes in the same room with same room temperature. Spacing between the seeds To ensure equal growth of the seeds, so that the seeds do not compete for space. Measure the space between the seeds with the help of a ruler (±0.1cm) Oxygen availability If the seeds are exposed to different levels of oxygen, the germination rate of the seeds will be different and will produce inaccurate results Keep the Petri dishes in the same area near the window.

    • Word count: 1852
  18. A simulation study of the Mark-Recapture Method by using Lincolns index

    We replace the seeds back in the jar and shuffle them. We then choose a number ?C? and take that number of seeds out of the jar. Then we write down ?R? which is the number of marked seeds within ?C?. Then we replace the seeds back in the jar. Thus we write down ?R? after increasing ?M? by 1. The following formula is used for the readings taken: N= MC/R M =number of marked seeds added N=population C= number of seeds taken out R= marked seeds found Carry this out 10 times for more accuracy.

    • Word count: 560
  19. Investigate the effects of environmental factors on the distribution of maggots using a choice chamber

    Therefore, the variation of this set of data caused the high standard deviation but overall, still supports the hypothesis. Other conditions, Light Wet, Light Dry and Dark Dry are less attractive as they have the average of 4, 3 and 3 respectively. Their average is much lower than the average of Dark Wet chamber. This shows that a much less number of maggots prefer these 3 conditions.

    • Word count: 487
  20. Examine the correlation between soil moisture at different heights up the slope and the length of the longest leaf of a Bracken Fern

    Therefore, as soil moisture decreases up the slope, the Bracken Fern up the slope will be progressively smaller as there is less water available in the soil for growth, thus resulting with the largest Bracken Fern consisting at the bottom of the slope. Due to this, I therefore predict that the length of the longest leaf would decrease up the slope as the Bracken Fern get smaller, because if the plant is smaller, its leaves should also reduce in length.

    • Word count: 3865
  21. Urinalysis Lab. From analyzing the different urine samples containing glucose, albumin, an altered pH, and ketones, many observations were made.

    In the second test, Biuret reagent was used to test for the presence of protein molecules in the urine sample, in this lab, the protein that was tested was albumin. When the indicator was added to the urine sample with albumin, the color of the solution turned purple. The color change to a violet color indicated that proteins had been detected (Gurien, 2008). On the other hand, when the Biuret reagent was added to the control, the sample turned clear.

    • Word count: 900
  22. Syphilis, a disease that is considered to be extremely contagious, is caused or affected by a bacterium called Treponema Pallidum.

    One of the theories assumes a New World Origin and explains the sailors who accompanied Christopher Columbus and about the other explorers who brought the disease back to the country, Europe. Another theory connected with syphilis clarifies that this disease, syphilis, has always been present in the ?Old World?, however, it was not identified as a separate disease such as leprosy before about 1500 A.D. These two theories are referred to as the ?Columbian and ?pre-Columbian. The third philosophy regarding about syphilis clarifies that the historian, Alfred Crosby, suggests that syphilis is developed in both hemisphere as Crosby says that

    • Word count: 1437
  23. Explain how water moves from the soil into the plant

    Now, the water is transferred to the xylem. The xylem is located in a central column of the root. As there is a water concentration gradient within the root, the water can after having entered the root via the root hairs continue across the cortex to the endodermis of the xylem by osmosis. In the endoderm cells, the water is forced to move through the cytoplasm. Root pressure occurs, the gradient of water concentration that is present across the cortex.

    • Word count: 484
  24. Genetically Modified Food

    Before applying genetic technique in food, farmers also practiced the artificial selection on agriculture and cattle. They always choose the better quality crop which imply having better gene to produce next generation so that the overall quality of food was improving. Using advanced biotechnology can do it in a faster and accurate way. Scientists know that the genes of an organism determine its feature and appearance. So the scientists use a special technique to alter the genetic material inside. It is like the ?copy and paste? method on the computer.

    • Word count: 1326
  25. Are Viruses Alive?

    The viruses are then passed out in the bloodstream, the airways, or by other routes. Structure of a Virus: ?A virus particle, also known as a virion, is essentially a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein shell or coat. Viruses are extremely small, approximately 15 - 25 nanometres in diameter.? 1. Certain viruses contain ribonucleic acid (RNA), while other viruses have deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Flu Virus (H1N1 Virus) 1. The nucleic acid portion of the viruses is known as the genome. The nucleic acid can be single-stranded or double-stranded; it could also be linear or a closed loop; it may be continuous or occur in segments.

    • Word count: 663

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