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A study of the soil percolation rates of various soil samples

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Introduction

Ishaan Khanna Candidate Number: 002603-011 ESS Practical DEC A study of the soil percolation rates of various soil samples. Research Question: Is there a difference between the percolation rates of the two soil samples? Hypothesis: 1) Soil Sample A has a higher percolation rate than Soil Sample B. 2) Soil Sample B has a higher percolation rate than Soil Sample A. Variables: Input Variables: Type of soil Output Variables: Percolation rate of water Controlled Variable: Amount of water flowing in Equipment 2 Beakers Filter paper Funnel Weighing machine Soil Sample A Method: 15 gm. of soil sample A was left to dry for five days. Then it was put into the funnel. 10 ml water was poured into the funnel fitted with a filter paper to check the amount of water that percolates through the soil into the beaker. We wait for one minute for the water to percolate. Table No.1 Volume of water collected in the measuring cylinder: S. No. Volume ml (0.5 ml) 1 1.6 ml 2 2.3 ml 3 3.1 ml 4 1.2 ml 5 3.2 ml 6 1.2 ml 7 1.3 ml 8 1.5 ml 9 1.2 ml 10 1.4 ml 11 1.2 ml 12 2.2 ml 13 1.5 ml 14 2.3 ml 15 1.5 ml Soil Sample B Method: 15 gm. of soil sample B was left to dry for five days. Then it was put into the funnel. ...read more.

Middle

Soil Sample A Soil Sample B Numbers that lie in the range. Numbers that lie in the range. Mean 0.029667 0.048778 Standard Deviation 0.011325 0.010956 Mean-Standard Deviation -0.00467 15 of 15 -0.00878 15 of 15 Mean+Standard Deviation 0.054667 15 of 15 0.088778 15 of 15 Mean-(2*Standard Deviation) -0.2033 15 of 15 -0.03122 15 of 15 Mean+(2*Standard Deviation) 0.079667 15 of 15 0.128778 15 of 15 Mean-(3*Standard Deviation) -0.04533 15 of 15 -0.07122 15 of 15 Mean+(3*Standard Deviation) 0.10466 15 of 15 0.168778 15 of 15 The data is normally distributed and so I shall now perform a T test. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the two means. Alternate Hypothesis: There exists a significant difference between the soil percolation rate of soil sample A and soil sample B. Step 1: The difference between the means of the two sets of data. Mean of Soil Sample B ? Mean of Soil Sample A= 0.019111 Step 2: Square the Standard deviation of Soil Sample A set of data and divide by the number of pieces of data. (0.011325)^2 =0.0001282 0.0001282/15=0.0000085 Step 3: Square the Standard deviation of Soil Sample B set of data and divide by the number of pieces of data. (0.010956)^2 =0.0001201 0.0001201/15=0.000008 Step 4: Add the results from step 2 and step 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

Though the visually the soil samples looked dry there could have been a possibility that some moisture was still there. We could have slightly heated the soil samples before suing them for the experiment to make sure there was no moisture in them. For every reading soil sample was taken and put into the funnel, We did not grind the clustered lumps soil before putting it into the funnel. Though this would simulate the natural condition of soil, there was a strong possibility that different samples would have different degrees of clustered soil lumps. This would create inaccuracies. One possible solution would be to grind the soil into a fine consistent form. We could have identified the nature of the two soil samples that is clayey soil and sandy soil etc. then we could have referred to standard theoretical literature and got a clearer picture of percolation. Conclusion The mean percolation rate of Soil Sample B is higher than that of Soil Sample A. The T test shows that the difference between the two means is statistically significant and this was NOT a chance occurrence. The null hypothesis was not accepted and the alternate hypothesis was accepted. The graph No.1 justifies our conclusion. It tells us they the mean of Soil sample B is greater than the mean of Soil Sample A. The errors were kept to a minimum and we can safely conclude that there is a difference between the percolation rates of the two soil samples. ...read more.

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