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An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise.

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Introduction

IB biology HL Internal Assessment Candidate name: Emma Engsø Andersen Candidate number: dyv401 (000598-0005) IB Biology Higher level Internal Assessment An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise. Candidate name: Emma Engsø Andersen Candidate number: dyv401 (000598-0005) School: Nørre Gymnasium Class: 3i Subject: Biology HL Number of words: 1872 Submitted: 15/12/13 Table of contents Design……………………………………………………………………………………….. Research question………………………………………………………………….. 1 Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………. 1 Variables…………………………………………………………………………… 1 Apparatus…………………………………………………………………………... 1 Method……………………………………………………………………………... 2 Data collection and processing…………………………………………………………….. 2 Student’s t-test……………………………………………………………………………... 8 Conclusion and evaluation………………………………………………………………… 10 Appendices………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Appendix I………………………………………………………………………… 12 Research question What effect does short-term exercise (5min) have on the tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs of young adults (18-19 years old)? Hypothesis Tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs of young adults (18-19 years old) will increase after short-term exercise (5min) due to a higher demand of oxygen. Variables Independent variable: Exercise on a spinning bike for 5min. Dependent variables: Tidal volume. Vital capacity. Controlled variables: The age of the participants. The number of participants. The start setting of the spirometer (0). Time of period of exercise (5min). Uncontrolled variables: The speed at which the participants bike at on the spinning bike. The weight of the participants. ...read more.

Middle

Before exercise After exercise Mean of tidal volume 1352cm3 2270cm3 Standard deviation of tidal volume 569.78 790.28 Table 6. Values relevant to the t-test: mean difference in tidal volume, t-value and degree(s) of freedom. Mean difference of the tidal volume before and after exercise -920.20cm3 t-value -4.5479 (4.5479) Degree of freedom (df) 9 Degrees of freedom (for values before and values after exercise) 18 Vital capacity: Null hypothesis: The vital capacity of the lungs will not increase after short-term exercise (5min). Alternative hypothesis: The vital capacity will increase after short-term exercise (5min). Table 7. Values relevant to the t-test: The mean vital capacity and standard deviation of vital capacity before and after exercise. Before exercise After exercise Mean of vital capacity 4277cm3 4000cm3 Standard deviation of vital capacity 932.87 1310.64 Table 8. Values relevant to the t-test: mean difference in vital capacity, t-value and degree(s) of freedom. Mean difference of the tidal volume before and after exercise 223.30cm3 t-value 0.7252 Degree of freedom (df) 9 Degrees of freedom (for values before and values after exercise) 18 Table 9. Critical values of the t-distribution calculated according to the probability of an alpha value and degrees of freedom. ...read more.

Conclusion

This could have been improved by gathering more participants, of both genders, to take part in the experiment. Lastly, the number of trials done on the tidal volume and vital capacity was too low as 3 are not enough to provide accurate results. To improve this variable the number of trials could have been increased to 10 trials, which would give a more accurate mean of the tidal volume and vital capacity before and after exercise. Nevertheless, this investigation succeeded in demonstrating the effect of short-term exercise on the tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs, which was the initial aim. Appendices Appendix I Consent Form. · I have been informed about the nature of the experiment · I understand that I have the right to withdraw from the experiment at any time, and that any information/data about me will remain confidential · My anonymity will be protected as my name will not be identifiable. · The experiment will be conducted so that I will not be demeaned in any way. · I will be debriefed at the end, and have the opportunity to find out the results. I give my informed consent to participating in this experiment NAME and date____________________________________________ Contact number_____________________________________________ ________________ [1] Appendix I ...read more.

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