• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

IB biology HL Internal Assessment Candidate name: Emma Engsø Andersen Candidate number: dyv401 (000598-0005) IB Biology Higher level Internal Assessment An investigation on the changes in tidal volume and vital capacity of lungs before and after short-term exercise. Candidate name: Emma Engsø Andersen Candidate number: dyv401 (000598-0005) School: Nørre Gymnasium Class: 3i Subject: Biology HL Number of words: 1872 Submitted: 15/12/13 Table of contents Design……………………………………………………………………………………….. Research question………………………………………………………………….. 1 Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………………. 1 Variables…………………………………………………………………………… 1 Apparatus…………………………………………………………………………... 1 Method……………………………………………………………………………... 2 Data collection and processing…………………………………………………………….. 2 Student’s t-test……………………………………………………………………………... 8 Conclusion and evaluation………………………………………………………………… 10 Appendices………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Appendix I………………………………………………………………………… 12 Research question What effect does short-term exercise (5min) have on the tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs of young adults (18-19 years old)? Hypothesis Tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs of young adults (18-19 years old) will increase after short-term exercise (5min) due to a higher demand of oxygen. Variables Independent variable: Exercise on a spinning bike for 5min. Dependent variables: Tidal volume. Vital capacity. Controlled variables: The age of the participants. The number of participants. The start setting of the spirometer (0). Time of period of exercise (5min). Uncontrolled variables: The speed at which the participants bike at on the spinning bike. The weight of the participants. ...read more.

Middle

Before exercise After exercise Mean of tidal volume 1352cm3 2270cm3 Standard deviation of tidal volume 569.78 790.28 Table 6. Values relevant to the t-test: mean difference in tidal volume, t-value and degree(s) of freedom. Mean difference of the tidal volume before and after exercise -920.20cm3 t-value -4.5479 (4.5479) Degree of freedom (df) 9 Degrees of freedom (for values before and values after exercise) 18 Vital capacity: Null hypothesis: The vital capacity of the lungs will not increase after short-term exercise (5min). Alternative hypothesis: The vital capacity will increase after short-term exercise (5min). Table 7. Values relevant to the t-test: The mean vital capacity and standard deviation of vital capacity before and after exercise. Before exercise After exercise Mean of vital capacity 4277cm3 4000cm3 Standard deviation of vital capacity 932.87 1310.64 Table 8. Values relevant to the t-test: mean difference in vital capacity, t-value and degree(s) of freedom. Mean difference of the tidal volume before and after exercise 223.30cm3 t-value 0.7252 Degree of freedom (df) 9 Degrees of freedom (for values before and values after exercise) 18 Table 9. Critical values of the t-distribution calculated according to the probability of an alpha value and degrees of freedom. ...read more.

Conclusion

This could have been improved by gathering more participants, of both genders, to take part in the experiment. Lastly, the number of trials done on the tidal volume and vital capacity was too low as 3 are not enough to provide accurate results. To improve this variable the number of trials could have been increased to 10 trials, which would give a more accurate mean of the tidal volume and vital capacity before and after exercise. Nevertheless, this investigation succeeded in demonstrating the effect of short-term exercise on the tidal volume and vital capacity of the lungs, which was the initial aim. Appendices Appendix I Consent Form. · I have been informed about the nature of the experiment · I understand that I have the right to withdraw from the experiment at any time, and that any information/data about me will remain confidential · My anonymity will be protected as my name will not be identifiable. · The experiment will be conducted so that I will not be demeaned in any way. · I will be debriefed at the end, and have the opportunity to find out the results. I give my informed consent to participating in this experiment NAME and date____________________________________________ Contact number_____________________________________________ ________________ [1] Appendix I ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Neurology and Behaviour. Focus question: Is there an increase in the perception and ...

    5 star(s)

    As there experiment involves a comparison of male and female responses. 1.3 Experimental Method Materials Apparatus Required Quantity * Pictures of disease related objects * Pictures of non disease related objects * Pictures of socially unacceptable situations * Pictures of socially acceptable situations * Desk * Chair * Printed out

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Osmosis Internal Assessment (Biology)

    4 star(s)

    cells had become turgid and that the net movement of water molecules was equal to zero. Here, the water solution had turned isotonic and the movement of water into the cell equaled the movement of water out of the cell, resulting in a general trend where no further changes in

  1. Ecology Open Investigation Does the geographic location affect the biotic and abiotic ...

    value, which means the two data values has a very small overlap with each other. The t-value of the two data does not exceed the 5% confidence factor. Consequently, the null hypothesis for the pH value of BL and 18MS is accepted.

  2. Transpiration Investigation

    Control: Variable/factor, and its effect on the experiment Method of control/ monitoring the variable Air movement- may change the rate of evaporation of the stomata in the leaves Each trial is performed as close to the others in location/ time as possible, in an environment with as little variation as

  1. Independent Research Project Vital Lung Capacity

    The gender of each participant was correspondingly checked to create equal experimental groups for it is well known that males have sturdier reparatory skills than that of compared to females. Lastly it was important to make sure that no participant had any affliction of any kind that would have the

  2. The effect of pvc piping on the breathing/heart rates of male year 12 students

    10 4 20 19 16 14 11 5 18 17 15 15 12 6 21 19 17 14 13 7 19 15 14 11 10 8 25 21 19 17 14 9 20 19 16 15 11 10 22 18 15 13 12 2.2.0 Processing raw data 2.2.1- Overview- Both

  1. Lung Capacity Fitness Level

    Regular exercise leads to many physiological changes for the human body. One of the benefits and changes to the body is improving cardio-respiratory function. Improved cardio-respiratory function means that the body is able to exercise much more capably - becomes easier for the body to handle rapid changes in breathing.

  2. Biology Internal Assessment - investigate whether the Window and Notching caterpillar share the same ...

    Evaluation: Limitation of the method How significantly could this have impacted on your results and why Improvement Our sampling of the area was not truly random, due to the limited number of feeding sites. This would have affected the reliability and validity of our results as because we were not

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work