• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Bilharzia. Schistosomiasis, commonly known as snail fever, bilharzia and bilharziasis, is a disease caused by parasitic worms.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Cheryl Chan 9YC/9F Science/Mrs. Smith How can I avoid disease? - Bilharzia Schistosomiasis, commonly known as snail fever, bilharzia and bilharziasis, is a disease caused by parasitic worms. It is the mostly deadly NTD - neglected tropical disease - affecting millions of people each year around the world. Even with a low mortality rate, schistosomiasis is only second to malaria in terms of having a great social, economic, and health impact in tropical regions of the world, and also as the most common parasitic disease among humans. Schistosomiasis is caused by a pathogen, which is basically a disease-producing agent. The term 'pathogen' is generally used to directly refer to infectious organisms; for example, a virus, a bacterium, or fungi. There are several ways where pathogens can enter a human body; mainly by air respiration, water contact or ingestion, soil contact and animal contact or bite. Diseases, illnesses characterized by a patient's symptoms and physical findings, are sometimes confused with pathogens and the difference is that diseases are what pathogen causes. Our bodies often destroy pathogens before it really causes anything. The main forms of human schistosomiasis are caused by five different species of flatworms, known as schistosomes: Schistosoma mansoni (causes intestinal schistosomiasis), Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma japonicum (causes Asian forms of intestinal schistosomiasis), Schistosoma mekongi (causes Asian forms of intestinal schistosomiasis) and Schistosoma haematobium (causes urinary schistosomiasis). ...read more.

Middle

It is often to be the only symptom. Muscle pain, headache, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, coughing, frequent, painful and bloody urine are also common problems and can come within a month of the infection. Untreated snail fever may cause deadly urinary system or liver inflammation and scarring, bladder tumors and bowel cancer. Children who are recurrently infected can develop anemia, malnutrition, learning difficulties and distended bellies. Seldom, seizures, paralysis, or spinal cord inflammation can also be brought by eggs found in the brain or spinal cord. However, a single dose of praziquantel has been shown to reduce the severity of symptoms in those re-infected with the disease There are few defenses that the body provides against the schistosomiasis pathogen. An inflammatory reaction will be produced around each egg, but the inflamed tissue will then harden and block blood and lymph vessels, causing problems for the human body. No vaccine in preventing infection is available at the moment; nevertheless bilharzia can be treated with a variety of drugs. As mentioned above, praziquantel is a common treatment and is most effective against adult worms, requiring an immune reaction to be fully effective. It may cause headaches, tiredness, vomiting, loss of appetite and increased sweating as side effects, yet it will kill the majority of parasites within the bloodstream. Despite that, some worms will possibly survive and developing larvae that are not altered by the drug can rebuild the infection. ...read more.

Conclusion

Nonetheless, the disease of schistosomiasis and its spread around the world relates greatly to social issues. As many people who take refuge near the contaminated rivers often live in unfortunate conditions, they would also have to use the waters for everyday activities, like fishing, washing and cooking. That is a main reason to why schistosomiasis continues growing. Another is because the public, especially ones living at risk, knows very little about the disease. In societies too poor to develop advanced sanitation systems of rivers and streams, hundreds of people would still bathe in the infected waters without much care to their health. This is why recently, education campaigns about the risks of bathing in fresh water have been organized to raise awareness among people. Also, refined water quality, snail population control and treatment of infected people have started to make good accomplishments in endemic areas, involving China, Brazil, Egypt, and Africa. Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a disease produced from the schistosomiasis pathogen. Despite being considered widespread, it is found mainly in parts of Africa where water sanitation is not developed. There are different types of schistosomiasis; all exposed from contaminated waters and each can cause various symptoms, some fatal, some not. It can be treated from the drug praziquantel, however still causes big impacts on the economy of societies and is affected from social issues. In order to avoid this disease, we should be cautious when travelling in infected regions and always keep one's hygiene in mind. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Biology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Biology essays

  1. biology extended essay - How different diets: vegetarian, vegan and a meat centered diet ...

    * Lower death rates for some chronic diseases. * Beneficial for overweight individuals. * Beneficial for women with premensrual syndrome. * Beneficial for individuals with diabetes, high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. 1.2.6 Are there any disadvantages of becoming or being a vegetarian or vegan? [6] Some people think that the main risk is a lack of protein,

  2. Environmental Factors affecting plant growth

    Phosphorus provides the energy required by all organic processes. RNA and DNA are the two nucleic acids components of the genetic information. Most seeds are high in phosphorus; meaning that they already contains phosphorus which helps the plants spend the first few days of its growth period without depending on the soil that it grows in.

  1. The Effects of Salinity on Wheat Germination

    0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 7.0 2% number 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 5.5 2% number 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.5 0.0 6.5 2% number 5 0.0 0.0 0.0

  2. Should Animals have the same rights as Humans? Both animals and humans exhibit behaviours ...

    receiving of food was a long term response or could be forgotten quickly, say overnight. As mentioned previously the dogs were stray and their history not known. This means some of the dogs may have previously learned to associate sound (say an owner's call or whistle)

  1. Sleep is a normal part of human life. Investigate the neurobiological basis of normal ...

    Many hormones are secreted into the blood during sleep. For example, scientists believe that the release of growth hormone is related in part to repair processes that occur during sleep. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which are involved in maturational and reproductive processes, are among the hormones released during sleep.

  2. Environmental Mangement - Upland Burning in Ireland and the Effects of the Heritage Bill ...

    A backing fire is started along a downwind controline (e.g. road, plough line) and allowed to back into the wind (C. Nugent, Personal Communication, 2017). Backing fires produce a minimum scorch as a result, the technique is predominantly used in areas with heavy fuels (e.g.

  1. River Thame Investigation How does the distribution of mayfly larvae depend upon ...

    1 0.0 1.5 5 0.000 16.98 straight 0.022 16.87 stream 0.013 16.34 as 0.5 2.4 7 0.234 16.44 enters 0.302 16.34 centre 0.243 16.23 1.0 5.8 14 0.456 16.88 0.332 16.86 0.411 16.32 1.5 10.2 14 0.654 15.97 0.457 15.86 0.488 15.34 2.0 12.7 26 0.688 16.45 0.712 16.32 0.659

  2. Causes of Alzheimers Disease

    http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_08/d_08_m/d_08_m_alz/d_08_m_alz_2a.jpg Inside the brain, the microtubules act as a transport system that carries nutrients and other essential materials through the brain cells. This transport system is organized in a parallel strand and are maintained by the tau proteins. When the tau proteins are twisted into tangles, the strands collapse and this will lead to the failure of the transport system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work