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Biology Cell biology

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

u Contents 1- Design pg 3 1.1 Defining the problem pg 3 1.1.1- Focus question Pg 3 1.1.2- Hypotheses Pg 3 1.1.3- Theory Pg 3 1.1.4- Investigating variables Pg 4 1.2- Controlling variables Pg4 1.2.1- Variables tables pg 4 1.2.2- Control used for comparison pr 5 1.3- Experimental methods 1.3.1- materials pg 5 1.3.2- Practical health and safety form (appendix) 1.3.2- method pg 6 2.0- data collection and processing page 6 2.1.1- Raw data table pg 7 2.1.2- Qualitative data Pg 7 2.2-processing raw data 8 2.2.1- mathematical calculations 8 2.3- Presenting processed data pg 9 2.3.1 Overview pg 9 2.3.2- Processed data pg 9 to 11 3.1- Conclusion and evaluation pg 12 3.1.1- Conclusion 12 3.1.2- Limitations of experimental design pg 13 3.1.3 - Improvements to experimental design pg 14 Bibliography pg 15 Appendix pg 16 onwards 1. Design 1.1 Defining the problem 1.1.1 Focus Question- What will happen to the rate of reaction of the amylase in the starch when the temperature is changed? 1.1.2 Hypothesis- The rate of reaction of amylase in starch will change as the temperature is changed. 1.1.3 Theory- A enzyme is a catalyst (increases the rate of reaction)(Malcolm P 2008). These enzymes are important within the body to reconstruct the nutrients we use into the compounds we need. Without these enzymes the reactions would occur far too slowly and we would slowly die. One of these enzymes is amylase. Amylase is an enzyme which breaks starch down into sugar (maltose). Amylase is commonly found in saliva. This is why if you hold a piece of starch rich bread in your mouth for long enough it begins to taste sweet. ...read more.

Middle

The first displayed the average of time at each distinct temperature (Zero values were not counted in averaging). This was also displayed with the standard deviation and rate of reaction. This data could be visually interpreted to establish the differences between each of the temperature thresh hold and could be further extrapolated into graphs. The second table is a simplification of which temperatures actually reacted. While not all of the concoctions fully hydrolysed, many of them still did react and it is important to mention this, as to eliminate bias in the fact that all of one reaction may have reacted but not completely. This data was then interpreted into a two graphs. One displaying the rate of reaction verses the temperature and a small table summarising the total number of reactions. This data in turn can be further interpreted. 2.3.2 Processed data Table 7 (processed data table of time and rate of reaction) Temperature Average time (secs) + 0.101sec Rate of reaction Standard deviation 30C 292.500 0.102 0.000024 35C 252.000 0.139 0.000034 40C 219.000 0.183 0.000048 45C 175.000 0.257 0.000056 50C 141.025 0.355 0.000078 Table 8 (Processed data table of number of reactions in subsequent temperatures). Temperate Number of reactions 30 4 35 4 40 4 45 5 50 5 Graph 1 (Reaction rate vs. temperature) The graph above gives an accurate coloration to the hypothesis (The Reaction rate will change at different temperatures). This can be seen as the rate of reaction increased as the temperate does. The rate of increase is also relatively uniform with an R value of 0.9584. This means that the graph is almost linier meaning there is little differentiation between each of the temperature thresh holds. ...read more.

Conclusion

It also would have been more efficient to use a better heating apparatus. A water bath was used and temperature had to be maintained at constant levels. This required a lot of fiddling with the output of the hotplate and probably spawned some temperatures which were not constant and accurate. Alternatively an air space heater could have been used which can control the rate of temperature in the substance trough the use of computers. This error is random in the effect that temperature was controlled to an extent but not perfectly, but also systematic due to the heating apparatus used. It also would have been more efficient to use a data studio thermometer over a regular mercury thermometer because the regular thermometer had to constantly be removed to make sure a correct temperature was been recorded. 3.1.3 Improvements to experimental design Error indentified Type of error Factor for control The number of solutions Systematic This should be increased but not to a rate were standard deviation becomes too large. Timing apertures Systematic A stop watch or similar timing device should be used Colour regeneration Systematic A colour spectrometer should have been used over the eyes. This could also be used to record the intensity of the reaction Independent variable Systematic The variable recorded should have been intensity of the reaction. By using a larger majority of the sample would have been able to record. This would have improved the validity of the experiment. Heating apparatus Systematic and random A more accurate device such as an air space heater should have been used. Apparatus for measuring temperatures Systematic A more accurate heating apparatus such as a data studio measurer over a regular mercury thermometer. ...read more.

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