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Biology Extended Essay 2009

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International Baccalaureate Presbyterian Ladies' College Extended Essay Biology 'Investigation and Comparison of nutritional values and health impact between freshly squeezed orange juice and two types of processed orange juice' Research Question: How well can processed orange juice be consumed in substitution of freshly squeezed orange juice, in term of its nutritional value and its impact on human health? Candidate Name: Ratima Kiatsommart Supervisor Name: Annabel Henriques Abstract "How well can processed orange juice be consumed in substitution of freshly squeezed orange juice, in term of its nutritional value and its impact on human health" This essay focuses on an investigation of three main distinct types of orange juice - Freshly squeezed, pasteurized and Juice from concentrate. From these three types, it is possible to identify, compare and contrast the benefits each one has towards human bodies. The scope of investigation is narrowed down to focus on the method of processing and characteristics of each type of orange juice. Benefits of fresh orange juice and the impacts of the both processed orange juice towards human health were explored in more depth. Many aspects of the characteristics of the orange juice were taken into account and enable the comparison to be more efficient. Survey and Experiment on the Vitamin C content were constructed for the comparison to be clearer as it shows consumers' behavior and preference for different types of juices. Moreover, there was identification of losses of nutritional value during the production and indication of the impacts additives have on human bodies. The study shows that pasteurized orange juice is an efficient substitute for freshly squeezed orange juice due to its longer shelf life and additive-free characteristics. After series of exploration, it also shows that the vitamin C content does not deplete much after the juice has been processed in highly heated environment. On the other hand, it is best to avoid consuming orange juice from concentrate. ...read more.


Pour approximately 15 mL of blue vitamin C indicator into the conical flask 2. Use the pipette to add fresh orange juice drop by drop until the colour of the indicator turns from blue to colourless. 3. The flask must be frequently swirled after each drop added. 4. Observe and count how many drop of orange juice it takes, for the colour of indicators to change. 5. Repeat the procedures with other two types and brands of orange juice. Results: No. of Drops of orange juice Types/brands of orange juice Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Freshly squeezed California Navel orange 20 22 24 22 Pasteurized Original Juice Company 36 33 33 34 Golden Circle Premium 35 32 31 33 Berri Australian Fresh 36 32 33 34 From Concentrate Daily Juice company 28 30 33 30 Just Delicious 26 27 29 27 Extra juice 27 26 28 27 Discussion: As the result clearly shown, the freshly squeezed has the highest vitamin C content among the three types of orange juice with 22 drops on average. Followed by the Orange juice from concentrate with a range of 27 - 30 drops and the lowest vitamin C content orange juice is the pasteurized one. This is due to the presence of pulp in the freshly squeezed orange juice, which is the major source of vitamin C in orange. However, between pasteurized orange juice and juice from concentrate are expected to be similar as Vitamin C (300) is added into the juice to maintain nutritional value for the juice after the loss in thermal processing. From this experiment, the processed orange juice can partially replace the nutritional value given by the freshly squeezed one. As this experiment was investigated the level of vitamin C in a short period of time. The level of vitamin C content over a period of time has to be explored further in the next section. ...read more.


Juice is pasteurized for less time for to acquire a shorter shelf life so consumers will buy the juice more frequently as the expirary date is reach faster. - There are juices with added supplement e.g Antioxidant, vitamin D that have not been explored. - With the constructed survey, it can be done within a bigger range of people and more choice of orange juice must be available for people to choose from. People mostly do not know the nutritional aspect of juice or either which one is a better juice to consume for health. They are more attracted to the desirable taste of the orange juice than the health aspect, especially for children. Choice of the most popular orange juice surveyed in this research may due to as a result of mass advertisement by the juice company. It is possible that people are more familiar with a certain orange juice brand; therefore it is ranked as the most desirable brands consume. Word count: 3936 words APPENDIX A: Primary data survey Survey was constructed for 50 people. They were asked to rank the given 10 brands of orange juice according to their personal liking. The results are as follow: Rank Orange juice brands Type Preservative used Sugar (%) Time before expirary date (days) Energy (kJ/100 mL) Price ($AUD/2L) 1 Berri Australian Fresh Pasteurized none 8.0 28 160 4.99 2 Original juice Company black label Pasteurized none 8.0 30 170 4.79 3 Daily juice company From concentrate 202, 211 8.0 45 160 4.99 4 Just Delicious From concentrate 202 7.0 45 140 4.99 5 Golden circle premium chilled juice Pasteurized none 7.5 25 170 3.98 6 Grove juice of orange Pasteurized 202, 211 8.0 28 140 3.95 7 Macquarie Valley From concentrate 202 6.0 60 140 4.89 8 Coles Farmland Pasteurized none 8.0 45 160 3.99 9 Extra Juice From concentrate 202 8.0 50 160 3.99 10 Fruitopia classic premium From concentrate 202 8.0 37 180 4. ...read more.

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